INTRODUCTION

 

Vathsanabha is known to the ayurvedic pharmacopeia since very early times. The word VISHA is delineated in ADHARVANA VEDA and BRAHMANA GRANDHA. Among the brihaththrayi’scharakacharya mentioned it under STHAVARA VISHA. He also denoted it as visha which is one of the ingredients of iendryrasayana. Vishadharana is one of the prophylactic measures for vishamajwara according to charakacharya. Vathsanabhi is described under 13 verities of kandhavisha by susruthacharya. It is very important to note that he quoted 4 verities of vathsanabhi for first times probably there are 4 varieties which are elaborated by Yogarathnakaralater.Susruthacharya elaborated the poisonous effects of vathsanabhi also. He included it among the KUSHTAHARA YOGAS. Vagbhatacharya preferred the name Visha to denote Vathsanabhi and used it in the treatment of KUSHTA,THIIRA,GANDAMALA,NADIVRNA,and APACHY etc.

Sarangadhara and Bhavamisra delineated Vathsanabhi in the texts while almost all nighadu’s mentioned it. Though Dhanvantharinighanduposses descriptions of Vathsanabhi synonyms and properties, most of the nighandu made little mentionings,Rajanighandu included it in the PANCHA MAHA VISHA. The utility of vathsanabhi definitely increased after the development of rasasastra.

 

PARYAYAS

VATHSANABHA: The root resembles the umbilicus of vathsa

VISHA

HALAHALA

AMRUTHA

GARALA

GARA

GARADA

BHOGARA

KALAKODA

KSHWEDA: Which act as madaka

SOWRASHTRIKA: Native origin

RAKTHASRUNGIKA: Poison

VISHAMUKTHA

MAHUSHADAM

MARANAM

NAGAM

KSHWEDA

TANKANA

 

VARIETIES

Susruthacharya quoted about four verities of vathsanabhi. Rasavagbhada have elaborated the four verities as brahma, kshthriya, vaisya, sudra

Brahmana- panduvarnavaisya-pithavarna

Kshatriya-rakthavarnasudra-krishnavarna

But rasatharanginy described only three variety of vathsanabhi on the basis of colour Krishna, kapisa, and panduvarna. They are considered as superior to each other in the same order.

Regarding the colour of market samples of aconite it is observed that in and around Amrithasar the roots of aconite are artificially coloured by using several techniques

For ex: Kasesa mixed with cow’s urine and then the roots are soaked and boiled in it for some time. Later the roots are shade dried and Mustard oil is applied over them. This method avoid insect and bugs but leading to confusion some times.

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

English : Monk’s hood, Aconitum

Hindi :Bachanag, Bis, Bish, Mhoor

Kannada  :Vatsanabhi

Malayalam: Vatsanabham

Tamil        : Vashanavi

Telugu      : Ativisa, Nabhi

Assam    : Bish

Bengal      : Bish, Butsnabish, Katbish

Gujerath   : Shingadivachanag

Marathi    : Bachag, Vachnag

Arabic       : Bish

Persian      : Bishnag, Zher

 

 

PART USED

 

The tuberous root is medicinally used in various preparations. Both the ancient and modern descriptions indicate that the collection of root is preferred during winter.

DESCRIPTION OF PART: Abconical, abruptly tapering roots, more often paired as mother and daughter tubers, 2-5 cm in length and up to 2.5 cm in diameter at the thickest part. Surface dark brown in color, densly covered with remnants of root lets or root scars arranged in an annular fashion. Fracture short exposing a medially surface of yellowish brown color odor nil. Taste slightly sweet followed by tingling sensation.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

Root- roots contains pseudo-aconite, a toxic substance (similar to that of aconite) which is obtained approximately 4 gm in about half kg root material.

Aconite: 0.97-1.23%, Picro-aconine, Benzoin-aconine and Homonipoline are also present.

 

PROPERTIES

 

 RASA     – MADHURA

GUNA      – LAGHU, RUKSHA, TEKSHNA, VYAVAY, VIKASI

VIRYA     – USHNA

VIPAKA   – KATU

 

 

KARMA

 

  • vathakaphahara
  • -jwarahara
  • -jangma
  • -vishahara
  • -madakary
  • -kushtagna
  • -vedanasthapaka
  • -sodhahara
  • -depana – pachana
  • -hridya
  • -sukrasthambana
  • -mootrala
  • -arthavajanana
  • -Amavaathagna
  • -sandhivathahara
  • -vyavay
  • -swedala

 

INDICATION

 

-NADIDOURBALYA,HRUTDOURBALYA

-PAKSHAGADA, SANDHIVATHA,AMAVATHA

-SIRASOOLA

-KASA, SWASA

-IKSHUMEHA,BAHUMUTRA,SAYYAMUTRA

-MUTRASARKARA,PREMEHA

-JWARA,SANNIPATAJWARA,JEERNAJWARA

-SODAVEDANAYUKTHA VIKARA,JWARA

-AGNIMANDYA,UDARA VIKARA,SULA

-YAKRUT PLEEHAVIKARA

-JANGAMAVISHA

-KUSHTA

-MADHUMEHA

-VATHA ROGA

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

Shirashoola:  yeshtichurna 1 thola&vatsanabha powder 2.5g is used as pradhamananasya in a dose of 1 sarshapa mg.

Shoola:pippali,pippalimoola&vatsanabhachoorna are mixed in equal proportion

 

 

DOSAGE

 

In Rasartnasamuchaya

1st       day            – 1 sarshapa

2-4th day             – 2 sarshapa

5-7th day             – 3 sarshapa

9th day onwards   – 1 sarshapa quantity increased for every 4 days till it reaches a maximum dose of 1 ratty(120mg)

In Ayurveda prakasa

1st     day              – 1 sarshapa

2-7th day               – 1 sarshapa increased per day

8-14 days               – 1 sarshapa reduce per day

3rd week                 – 1 sarshapa increased per day

4th week                 – 1 sarshapa reduce per day

RasaratnasamuchayaandAyurvedaprakasamentiond to increse gradually and tappering of vatsanabha like Vardhamana yoga.

-The maximum dose of Vatsanabha is 8 Yava only.

-P.V Sharmaji prescribes 1/8 ratty ie, 15 mg of root powder and VaidyaBapalal advocates 60-125 mg of root powder.

 

VISISHTA YOGA’S

 

  • -Anathabhirava rasa
  • -Amrutharasayana
  • -Hinguleswara rasa
  • -Indryrasayana
  • -Jwaramurary
  • -Jaya vaty
  • -Kaphakethu rasa
  • -Mritunjaya rasa
  • -Panjamrutha rasa
  • -Panjavaktra rasa
  • -Rambhanarasa
  • -Saubhagyavatika
  • -Siratandava rasa
  • -Tribhuvanakeerti rasa
  • -Visharasayana
  • -Vishataila

 

RECENT RESEARCH ADVANCES

 

Vaidya Bapalal reported that Dr. Kartika Chandra Basu created a case of leprosy by administering low dose (10grains/clay) of vatsanabhi and cured it

It is documented that unless the skin is sound a dangerous quantity may be absorbed systemically even when applied externally as liniment.

-S.N. Bal

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