Netra Roga – Eye Disorders in Ayurveda


Netra Roga are the diseases related to the organ Netra.


96 Netra Roga as explained by Charaka C.Chi.26/129-131

  1. Vaataja
  2. Pittaja
  3. Kaphaja
  4. Saannipaatika


Charaka has counted only four types of Netra Roga as all the types are covered under these four types only. He has not described it more elaborative as it is subject of S`haalaakya Tantra. C.Chi.26/131



There are so many opinions about the total number of Netra Roga; which is summarized here.

Videha – 76

Karaala – 96 Accpeted opinions by Charaka.

Saatyaki 80


Charaka has accepted opinion of Aachaarya Karaala. C.Chi.26/129-131 Chakrapaan`i

o Vartmastha – 27

o Sandhigata – 9

o S`huklastha – 13

o Krishn`astha – 6

o Drisht`istha – 25

o Sarvagata – 16

o Total – 96



Netra Roga Charaka

(in commentary


Sus`hruta Vaagbhat`a Maadhava Nidaana
Vartmagata 27 21 24 21
Sandhigata 9 9 9 9
S`huklagata 13 11 13 11
Krishn`agata 6 4 5 4
Drisht`igata 25 12 27 12
Sarvagata 16 17 16 17
Baahya Kaaran`aja 2 2
Total 96 76 94 76



Vaataja Netra Roga: (C.Chi.26/129)

There is less redness in the eyes. There is less or no formation of Netra Mala (Upadeha). It manifests with Toda,Bheda.

Pittaja Netra Roga: (C.Chi.26/129)

There is Daaha, Ati Rujaa (severe pain), Raaga (redness in the eyes). Netra Mala turns to yellow colour (Peeta Upadeha). There are profuse hot secretions (Bhris`ha Ushn`a Sraavee).

Kaphaja Netra Roga: (C.Chi.26/130)

White coloured Netra Mala is formed. There is profuse sticky (Pichchhila) tearing of the eyes. There is heaviness in the eyes (Gurutaa) and itching (Kan`d`oo).

Saannipaatika Netra Roga: (C.Chi.26/130)

All the symptoms of Vaataja, Pittja and Kaphaja Netra Roga are manifested in the Saannipaatika Netra Roga.


S`haareera of Netra:

Man`d`ala – 5

  1. Pakshma Man`d`ala
  2. Vartma Man`d`ala
  3. S`hveta Man`d`ala
  4. Krishn`aMan`d`ala
  5. Drish`i Man`d`ala


Sandhi – 6

  1. Pakshma Vartma Gata Sandhi
  2. Vartma S`hukla Gata Sandhi
  3. S`hukla Krishn`aGata Sandhi
  4. Krishn`aDrisht`i Gata Sandhi
  5. Kaneenakaa Gata Sandhi
  6. Apaangaga Gata Sandhi


Pat`ala 6 in the Avayava Netra. S.U.1/14

  1. Vartma Pat`ala– 2
  2. Netragata Pat`ala– 4 – where Timira Vyaadhi gets manifested. (Timira Daarun`a Vyaadhi S.U.1/17)
  3. Baahya Pat`alaTejo Jalaas`hrita
  4. Maamsaas`hrita Pat`ala
  5. Medaas`hrita Pat`ala
  6. Asthyaas`hrita Pat`ala

All these four Pat`alaa are 1/5 of the total thickness of the Drisht`i.

The optimum qualities of Siraa, Kan`d`araa, Medas Kaalaka, and Kaalakaasthi Sameepastha S`hleshmaa attribute to the formation of eyes. S.U.1/19


Common Sampraapti:

Siraanusaaribhih Doshaih Vigun`aih Oordhvam Aagataih |

Jaayante Netrabhaageshu Rogah Paramadaarun`aah || S.U.1/20, A.H.U.8/1-2


Aggravated Dosha, generally Pitta dominant; traverse to the eyes getting upward direction, causing the diseases of Vartma, Sandhi, Sita, Krishn`a, Drisht`i or complete eye.

When Vitiated Dosha traverse through the Siraa in the upward direction; they cause the serious diseases of eyes.

Netra Roga

  1. Vaataja – 10
  2. Pittaja – 10
  3. Kaphaja – 13
  4. Raktaja – 16
  5. Sarvaja – 25
  6. Baahya 2 Total – 76



Saadhyaasaadhyataa – S.U.1/29

Vaataja (10) Pittaja (10) Kaphaja (13) Raktaja (16) Sarvaja

(Sannipaataja) (25)

Baahya (2)
Hataadhimantha (A) Hrasvajaad`ya (A) Kaphaja Sraava (A) Rakta Sraava (A) Pooyaasraava (A) Sanimitta Baahya Netra Vikaara (A)
Nimisha (A) Jalasraava (A) Kaphaja Kaacha (Y) Ajakaajaata (A) Nakulaandhya (A) Animitta Baahya Netra Vikaara (A)
Gambheerikaa Drisht`i (A) Parimlaayee(Kaacha) (Y) Abhishyanda (S) S`hon`itaars`ha(RaktaarS`a) (A) Akshipaakaatyaya(A)
Vaatahata Vartma(A) Neela (Kaacha) (Y) Adhimantha (S) Savran`a S`hukra(A) Alajee (A)
Vaataja Kaacha (Y) Abhishyanda (S) Balaasagrathita (S) Raktaja Kaacha(Y) Kaacha (Y)
S`hushkaakshipaaka(S) Adhimantha (S) S`hleshmavidagdha Drisht`i (S) Adhimantha (S) Pakshmakopa (Y)
Adhimantha (S) Amlaadhyushita (S) Pothakee (S) Abhishyanda (S) Vartmaavabandha(S)
Abhishyanda (S) S`huktikaa (S) Lagan`a (S) Klisht`avartma(S) Siraa Pid`akaa (S)
Maaruta Paryaya (S) Pittavidagdhadrisht`i(S) Krimigranthi (S) (Siraa) Harsha(S) Prastaari Arma (S)
Anyatovaata (S) Dhoomadars`hee (S) Pariklinnavartma (S) (Siraa) Utpaata(S) Adhimaamsaarma(S)
S`huklarma (S) Anjananaamikaa(S) Snaayvarma (S)
Pisht`aka (S) Siraajaala (S) Utsanginee (S)
S`hleshmopanaaha(S) Parvan`ee (S) Pooyaalasa (S)
Avran`a S`hukra(S) Arbuda (S)
S`hon`itaarma(S) S`hyaava Kardama (S)
Arjuna (S) S`hyaava Vartma(S)
Ars`ho Vartma (S)
Sas`hopha Paaka(S)
As`hopha Paaka(S)
Bahalavartma (S)
Aklinnavartma (S)
Kumbheekaa (S)
Bisavartma (S)


Sandhigata Roga:

There are total 9 Sandhigata (at the Netra Sandhi) Roga:


Su. U. 2 A. H. U. 10
Pooyaalasa Jalaasraava
Upanaaha Kaphaasrava
Sraava – 4 types Upanaahaa
Parvan`ikaa Raktaasrava
Alajee Parvan`ee
Krimigranthi Pooyaasrava



There is suppurated S`hopha (Pakva S`hopha) at the Kaneenikaa Sandhi (inner canthus of the eye). There is secretion of Saandra and Pooti Sraava (thick and putrid secretions). It is Saadhya and Tridoshaja.

Upanaaha / S`hleshmopanaaha:

There is big glandular growth (Mahaan Granthi) at the Drisht`i Sandhi. It does not suppurate. There is itchingKan`d`oo. There is no pain. It is called as Upanaaha. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is bubble like S`hotha. The base of the S`hotha is wide. It is unctuous. It is same as skin colour. It is soft and Pichchhila and does not suppurate. There is Kan`d`oo. It is Upaanaha.

Netra Sraava / Netra Naad`ee:

Dosha traverse through As`hrumaarga and reside in to the Kaneenikaa Sandhi. There are painless secretions. It is called as Netra Naad`ee by some people.

Pooyaasraava – at the Sandhi, there is pus secretion. Pooyasraava.According to Vaagbhat`a, Dosha with Raktacauses secretion of Pooya with Rakta due to Tvak and Maamsa Paaka.

S`hleshmaasraava – there are white coloured, viscid, sticky secretions

Raktaasraava – this is caused due to Rakta. There are Ushn`a, not much viscid (Naatisaandra) secretions.

Pittaasraava (Jalaasraava) – it is dark blue coloured secretion. It is hot, and watery also.n according to Vaagbhat`a, aggravated Vaayu enters in to the Jalavaahee Siraa causing As`hru Sraava from Kanineekaa Sandhi. There is Ruk, Raaga, S`hopha; which is Jalaasraava.


It is Taamra (copper coloured), Tanu (thin) S`hopha (Oedema). There is Daaha, S`hoola. It caused due to Rakta. The S`hopha is circular.


It manifests on Krishn`a and S`hukla Sandhi. It is Sthoola than Parvan`ikaa. Parvan`i and Alajee manifest on the same site. The symptoms are same as that of Parvan`i. According to Vaagbhat`a, this manifests on Kanineekaa.

It is counted as Vartmagata Roga by Vaagbhat`a. It is Taamra Pit`ikaa which is suppurated. Though it is drained repeatedly, it gets enlarged.


It manifests on Vartma and Pakshma Sandhi. It also manifests on Vartma and S`hukla Sandhi. There is itching (Kan`d`oo) due to Krimi. These Krimi vitiate internal of the eye. These Krimi are different in there appearance.

According to Vaagbhat`a, it may manifest on Kaneenikaa or Apaanga. There is itching, Ushn`aa (Daaha),Pakshmapot`a. There is Pooyasraava. The Granthi is with the Krimi. It is Krimigranthi.

Vartmagata Roga:

Vartma is an eyelid. These are the diseases which are related to eyelid.

There are 21 Vartmagata Roga described by Sus`hruta.



o Dosha singly or simultaneously, get resided in the Siraa in the Vartma. They cause growth of Maamsa and Raktaat the Vartma causing different diseases.

Name of the diseases – S.U.3/5-8


S.U.3/5-8 (21) A.H.U.8/1-24 (24)
Utsanginee Utsnaga
Kumbheekaa Kumbheekaa
Pothakee Pothakee
Vartmas`harkaraa Sikataa Vartma
Anjananaamikaa Anjananaamikaa
Bahala Vartma Bahala Vartma
Klisht`a Kardama Vartma Kardama
Klisht`a Vartma Utklisht`a Vartma
S`hyaavavartma S`hyaavavartma
Praklinna Vartma S`hlisht`a Vartma
Apariklinna Vartma
Vaatahata Vartma Vaatahata Vartma
Arbuda Arbuda
Nimisha Nimesha
S`hon`itaars`ha Ars`ha
Lagan`a Lagan`a
Bis`ha Bisa Vartma
Pakshmakopa Pakshmoparodha
Pittotklisht`a Vartma
Kaphotklisht`a Vartma
Rakta Utklisht`a Vartma



This is Pid`akaa. It manifests on the haunch of the lower eyelid. It has opening internally and it is elevated externally. This is Sanipaataja and Asaadhya.

It is Raktaja according to Vaagbht`a.

Kumbheekaa / Kumbheeka Pid`akaa:

This is Pid`akaa manifested in the shape of Daad`ima Phala (fruit of pomegranate). It manifests externally on theVartma. These Pid`akaa gets enlarged after they drain out. These are Saannipaataja and Saadhya. It is Pittajaaccording to Vaagbhat`a.


These are the Pid`akaa. There are secretions. There is itching (Kan`d`oo). There is heaviness. They resemble to Red Mustard seeds. There is pain (Rujaa). These are called as Pothakee. These are Saadhya and Kaphaja.

Vartma S`harkaraa:

This is a Pid`akaa which is surrounded by other very small and dense Pid`akaa. This Pid`akaa is large and Khara(rough). This is Saannipaataja and Asaadhya.


This is a Pid`akaa which resemble to Ervaaru Beeja (Greeshma Karkat`ee). There is mild pain (Manda Rujaa). ThePid`akaa are very Smaal and rough (Sookshma and Khara). This is Saannipaataja and Saadhya.


This is a growth on the eyelid. It is rough (Khara), Daarun`a, Stabdha. It is Saannipaataja and Saadhya.


This is a Pid`akaa associated with Daaha, Toda. It is copper coloured (Taamraa). It is soft (Mridu). There is mild pain (Manda Rujaa). It is small in size (Sookshmaa). It is Raktaja and Saadhya.

Bahala Vartma:

All over the eyelid, Pid`akaa are formed. These Pid`akaa are same in colour of Vartma. These Pid`akaa are same in size. It is Saannipaataja and Saadhya.

There is Maamsa Vriddhi as per Vaagbhat`a.


It is S`hopha (Oedema) on the eyelid. It is associated with itching (Kan`d`oo), mild pain (Alpa Toda). It does not cover the eye evenly. It is Saannipaatika and Saadhya.

Klisht`a Vartma / Utklisht`a Vartma:

When the eyelid suffers form mild pain (Alpa Vedanaa). It turn to copper colour (Taamra Varn`a). Suddenly it becomes red coloured, then it is called as Klisht`a Vartma. It is Raktaja and Saadhya. As per Vaagbhat`a, it isRaktaja and Tridoshaja.

Vartma Kardama:

When Klisht`a Vartma gets associated with Pitta and causes Vidaaha of Rakta, then it turns in to wet condition (like Kardama mud); which is called as Vartma Kardama. It is Saannipaataja and Saadhya.

S`hyaava Vartma:

When an eyelid turns to dark brown Colour (S`hyaava) and which is associated with S`hotha, Vedanaa, Daaha,Kan`d`oo, and Kleda; called as S`hyaava Vartma. It is Saannipaatika and Saadhya. As per Vaagbhat`a, it isRaktaja also.

Klinna Vartma / S`hlisht`a Vartma:

When there is no pain outside of the eyelid, there is Oedema inside the eyelid, which is wet and there is itching (Kan`d`oo), secretion (Sraava), Toda called as Klinna Vartma. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya.

Aklinna Vartma / Pilla:

It is Saannipaatika and Saadhya. The eyelids do not get wet. Though they are washed frequently; the eyelids get fastened to each other. There is no suppuration of the eyelids. This is Saannipaatja and Saadhya.

Vaatahata Vartma:

The eyelids are motionless. They can not be closed due to Vimukta Sandhi. There may or may not be Rujaa. It is called as Vaatahata Vartma. It is Vaataja and Asaadhya.


It manifests on the inside of the eyelid like a Granthi (Glandular growth). It is irregular. There is no pain. It is associated with Rakta. It hangs down. It is Saannipaataja and Saadhya. It is casued due to Rakta also, as perVaagbhat`a.


Aggravated Vaayu enters in to the Nimeshan`ee Siraa in the Vartma causing movements of the Vartma called asNimesha. It is Vaataja and Saadhya. It is Asaadhya as per Vaagbhat`a.


The growth on the eyelids goes on increasing though they are cut frequently. The growth is soft (Mridu). It is associated with Daaha, Kan`d`oo and Rujaa. It is Raktaj and Asaadhya.


It is a Granthi resembles to Kola. It does not suppurate. It is hard. It is large (Sthoola). There is no pain. There isKan`d`oo and it is Pichchiila. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya.

Bisa Vartma:

The eyelid is odematous and becomes porous (Sookshma Chhidra Yukta). It resembles to Bisa Antarjala. It isSaannipaatika and Saadhya.

Pakshmakopa / Pakshmoparodha:

Dosha enter in to the Pakshma (eye Lash) making them sharp and rough. Movements of the eyelids casue Daaha(Dooyana). It is pacified when the lashes are repeatedly drawn out. Patient hates of Vaayu, Aatapa and Agni. It is called as Pakshma Kopa. It is Saannipaatika and Yaapya.


Vaayu resides in to the Vartmagata Siraa due to which a person can not open his eyelids in the morning after getting up. There is pain also. There is tearing. It is pacified by the Mardana. It is Saadhya.

Pittotlisht`a Vartma:

Eye lid is suffering from Daaha, Kleda, Toda. It can not tolerate touch. It becomes red. This is caused due to Pitta.


The eye lashes are fallen due to Pitta causing Kan`d`oo, Daaha.

Kaphotklisht`a Vartma:

There is Stambha, Kleda and Upadeha at the Vartma. It is Kaphaja.

Raktotklisht`a Vartma:

Like Utsangee, it is caused due to Rakta. There are red coloured lines. It can not tolerate touch.


It is considered under Kaphaabhishyanda. It is an eye disease caused to children. It is Saadhya. It is Vartma Roga.


It is described under Sandhigata Roga.


Dosha cause constriction of the eyelids causing closure of the eye; which is called as Kunchana.


Other than Krichchhronmeelana, Nimesha, Vaatahata Vartma, S`hon`itaars`ha, Pakshmoparodha; all the Vartmagatadiseases described by Vaagbhat`a are S`hastrasaadhya. A.H.U.8/25


S`huklagata Roga: (Su. U. 4)

These are the diseases related to the sclera of the eye. The diseases are 11 in number as per Sus`hruta.

Name of the diseases:


Su. U. 4 A. H. U. 10
Prastaari Arma Prastaari Arma
S`hukla Arma S`hukla Arma
Kshataja Arma
Adhimaamsa Arma Adhimaamsa Arma
Snaayu Arma Snaayu Arma
S`huktikaa S`huktikaa
Arjuna Arjuna
Pisht`aka Pisht`aka
Siraa Jaala Siraa Jaala
Siraa Pid`akaa Siraa Pid`akaa
Balaasa Grathita Balaasa Grathita


Prastaari Arma:

It is Tridoshaja and Saadhya. This is wide, reddish (like Rakta) and bluish growth.

S`hukla Arma:

It a soft, white coloured and even growth on the S`hukla Man`d`ala. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya. It isS`hastrakarma Saadhya as per Vaagbhat`a.

Lohitaarma / S`hon`itaarma:

This is muscular growth Maamsa Prachaya on the S`huklaman`d`ala. It resembles to Padma; called asLohitaarma.

Maamsajaarma / Adhimaamsa Arma:

This is wide, soft, thick (Bahala) growth resembling to liver colour or dark brown (S`hyaava) on theS`huklaMan`d`ala. This is Saannipaataja and Saadhya.

Snaayu Arma:

This is muscular growth on the S`hukla Man`d`ala. It is rough (Khara) and whitish (Paan`d`u). It is Tridoshajaand Saadhya. It is S`hastra Saadhya as per Vaagbhat`a.


These are the dots on the S`huklaman`d`ala resembling to Maamsa (Pis`hita). They may be dark brown (S`hyaava). They resemble to S`hukti (a pearl-oyster or oyster shell). It is Pittaja and Saadhya.


Single spot on the S`huklaman`d`ala, that resembles to the blood of rabbit. (S`has`harudhiropama). It is Raktajaand Saadhya.


It is elevated and flour like white spot resembling to water called as Pisht`aka. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya.

Siraa Jaala / Jaalasamdnyita:

When S`hvetaMan`d`ala turns to net like appearance which is hard (Kat`hina), large in size and associated withRakta called as Siraa Jaala or Jaalasamdnyita. It is Raktaja and Saadhya. It is S`hastra Saadhya according toVaagbhat`a.

Siraa Pid`akaa:

This is white coloured Pid`akaa surrounded by Siraa near to Krishn`a Man`d`ala I. e. on the S`huklaMan`d`ala is called as Siraa Pid`akaa. It is Saannipaatika and Saadhya. It is S`hastra Saadhya according to Vaagbhat`a.

Balaasaka / Balaasagrathita:

These are the bronze Coloured (Kaamsya) spots on the S`huklaMan`d`ala. They resemble to water dews. It isKat`hina and without pain. It is called as Balaasaka. It is Kaphaja and Saadhya.

Krishn`agata Roga: ( S.U. 5)

These are the diseases related to Krishn`a Man`d`ala I. e. cornea.

These are 4 in number.

Name of the diseases:


S.U.5 A. H. U. 10
Savran`aS`hukra Kshata S`hukra

Krishn`a Man`d`alagata



Avran`a S`hukra S`huddha S`hukra
Akshi Paakaatyaya Paakaatyaya
Ajakaajaata Ajakaa
Siraa S`hukra


Savran` S`hukra / Kshata S`hukra:

It is a wound in the deep of the Krishn`a Man`d`ala. It resembles to the prick by needle. There are hot secretions with pain. It is called as Savran`a S`hukra.

It is Raktaja and Asaadhya.

It is Saadhya when:

o It is not near to the Drisht`i

o It is not deep Avagaad`ha

o There are no secretions (Sraava Rahita)

o There is no pain (Avedanaavaan)

o When it is not doubly manifested. (Yugma S`hukra)

It is Asaadhya, when:

o Its centre is distorted (Vichchhinna Madhya)

o It is covered by muscular tissue (Pis`hitaavrita)

o It is moving (Chala)

o It is crowded by Siraa (Siraasakta)

o It hampers vision (Adrisht`ikrit)

o It is harboured on the 2 Pat`ala (Dvi Pat`alaas`hrita)

o It is Chirotthita (chronic)

o When resembles to Green gram (MudgaNibha )

o Tittiripakshatulyam

Vaagbhat`a has described it at three Stages:

  1. Krishn`aMan`d`alagata Kshata S`hukra – Vitiated Pitta causes tear in the skin at Krishn`aor Drisht`IMan`d`ala. There is Toda, As`hru, Raaga. It resembles to the mature fruit of Jambu (Jamun Indian Black Berry). It may be little bit depressed. It is Krichchhrasaadhya.
  2. Dviteeyapatalagata Kshata S`hukra – it is Yaapya. There is Todaetc.
  3. Triteeyapatalagata Kshta S`hukra – it is Asaadhya.

Avran`a Shukra:

When there is formation of whitish patch (Sita) on the Kris`hna Man`d`ala. It resembles to the small thin cloud in the space. There is no pain and tears. This is Asaadhya and Raktaja.

It becomes Krichchhrasaadhya when:

o It is deeply situated (Gambheera Jaata)

o It is thick (Bahala)

o It is chronic (Chirotthita)

S`huddha S`hukra:

It is Kaphaja and Saadhya. There is no pain.

Paakaatyaya / Akshipaakaatyaya:

When complete Krishn`aMan`d`ala gets covered by S`hveta Varn`a; it is called as Akshipaakaatyaya / Akshikopa. It is manifested with severe pain. It is Tridoshaja and Asaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, it is Tridoshaja and Raktaja. Krishn`aMan`d`ala turns to S`huklavarn`a. There is severe pain. It is Asaadhya.


When Krishn`aMan`d`ala gets ruptured, there are secretions of red Coloured and sticky tears. There is oozing of a material like the fecal matter of sheep. (Ajaa Pureesha Pratima). It is black in Colour. It is called as Ajakaajaata. It is Kaphaja and Asaadhya. It is Raktaja and Asaadhya according to Vaagbhat`a.

Siraa S`hukra:

It is caused due to Dosha with Rakta. There is Toda, Daaha. There is formation of Taamra Siraa. There is Animitta S`heeta and Ushn`atva. It is Asaadhya.


Sarvagata Netra Roga: (Su. U. 6)

There are total 17 Sarvagata Netra Roga. It means that these are the diseases which manifest allover the eye.


Name of the diseases:


Su. U. 6 A. H. U. 15
Vaataabhishyanda Vaataabhishyanda
Pittabhishyanda Pittabhishyanda
Kaphaabhishyanda Kaphaabhishyanda
Raktaabhishyanda Raktaabhishyanda
Vaataadhimantha Vaataadhimantha
Pittaadhimantha Pittaadhimantha
Kaphaadhimantha Kaphaadhimantha
Raktaadhimantha Raktaadhimantha
Sas`hopha Paaka Sas`hopha Paaka
AS`hopha Paaka AS`hopha Paaka
Hataadhimantha Hataadhimantha
ANilaparyaya Vaataparyaya
S`hushkaakshipaaka S`hushkaakshipaaka
Anyato Vaata Anyato Vaata
Amlaadhyushita Drisht`i



Generally, all the eye diseases are caused due to Abhishyanda. Therefore, it is to be treated quickly.


There is Nistoda, Stambhana, Romaharsha, Sangharsha, Paarushya, S`hirobhitaapa, S`hushkatva,S`his`hiraas`hrutaa (cold tears) in Vaataabhishyanda.

It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is less and dried Netra Mala. It gets pacified by Snigdha and Ushn`a.


There is Daaha, Paaka, demand for cold things (S`hiraabhinanda), Dhoomaayana, Baashpa Samuchchhraaya (more tears), Ushn`aas`hrutaa (hot tears), yellowish eyes (Peeta Netrataa). It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is Daaha, Dhoomaayana, S`hopha, Vartma S`hyaavataa. There is wetness inside the eyelid.


A person demands for hot things. There is heaviness (Gurutaa), S`hopha, Kan`d`oo, Upadeha, whiteness of the eye (Sitataa), cold ness of the eye (Atis`haitya). There are frequent secretions. They are sticky. It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is heaviness (Jaad`ya), S`hopha, Kan`d`oo, Nidraa, Annaabhinandana. The tears are Saandra, Snigdha, abundant, like Pichchhaa.


The eye becomes copper and red coloured. There is manifestation of different lines which are highly red. There arePitta dominant symptoms. It is Raktaabhishyanda. It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there are symptoms of Pittaja Abhishyanda.


When the Abhishyanda is not properly treated, then they turn to Adhimantha with more severe pain. It manifests with the Utpaat`ana, Nirmathana of Netra and S`hiraardha.

According to Vaagbhat`a, in all the types of Adhimantha, pain gets aggravated. There is severe pain at Shamkha,Danta, and Kapaala.


There is Utpaat`ana, Manthana of the Netra and S`hira. There is Sangharsha, Toda, Bheda,MaamSasamrabdhataa, Aavila Netrataa (Muddy eyes). There is Kunchana, Sphot`ana, Aadhmaana, Vepathu,Vyathaa in the half of the head; this is Vaataadhimantha. It is Saadhya. It destroys the vision within 6 days if not treated or treated improperly.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is Karn`anaada, Bhrama. There is a churning pain like Aran`i Manthana. It distorts the vision within 5 Nights.


There are red coloured lines on the eye. There are secretions. There is burning sensation as if it is being burnt by fire. Eye ball resembles to Yakrit Khan`d`a. inner side of the eye lids are odematous and suppurated. There is perspiration. There is Moorchchha, S`hirodaaha. It is Saadhya. It destroys the vision immediately if not treated or treated improperly.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is burning pain as if red hot coals are put on the skin. It resembles to the colour of the Yakrit. It distorts the vision immediately due to unwholesome food habbits and act.


There is Sraava, Kan`d`oo, S`haitya, Gaurava, Pichchhilataa, Dooshikaa. A person sees with difficulty. There is muddy view. There is Naasaa Aadhmaana, S`hiroduhkha. It is Saadhya. It destroys the vision within 7 days if not treated or treated improperly.

According to Vaagbhat`a, Krishn`aMan`d`ala is depressed while S`huklaMan`d`ala is elevated. There is Praseka,Naasaadhmaana. It distorts the vision within 7 days.


Eye ball looks like flower of Bandhujeeva. It can not tolerate touch. There is Raktasraava. There is Toda. A person looks red everywhere. The Krishn`a Man`d`ala looks like fruit of Arisht`a. it is Saadhya. It destroys the vision within 5 days if not treated or treated improperly.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is pain like tearing out. The Colour of the eye changes to Taamra. It resembles toBandhoojeeva. It can not tolerate touch. It distorts the vision within 3 Nights.

Sas`hopha Paakaa:

Eye ball resembles to the mature fruit of Udumbara. There is Kan`d`oo, Upadeha and As`hru (Tears). There isDaaha, Harsha, S`hopha, Toda, Gaurava. There are frequent secretions of hot blood (Ushn`a As`hru), cold water (S`heetaambu). The secretions are sticky. There is suppuration in the eyeball. It is Sas`hopha Paaka. It isTridoshaja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, it is caused due to all the three Dosha and Rakta. It resembles to the ripenendUdumbara Phala.

As`hopha Paakaa:

It manifests with the symptoms same as of S`hopha Paaka, but there is no S`hopha. It is Tridoshaja andSaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is less Oedema (Alpa S`hopha).


This is caused due to negligence in treating Adhimantha. This is Vaataja Vikaara. There is Ugra Rujaa (Severe Pain). It is Asaadhya. There is Avasaada of Netra. (Sinking of the eyeball). Vaayu harbours in to the Netragata Siraa. There is throwing out of the eyeball. It is Asaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there are different types of Vran`a on the Drisht`i.


Vitiated Vaayu causes pain while traversing through the Pakshma, Akshi (eyeballs), Bhroo (eyebrow). The pain is caused alternately in these regions. It is Vaataparyaaya. It is Vaataja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is squinting of the eye.


Vartma are closed. They are rough and dry (Daarun`a and Rooksha). A person looks muddy. A person can not open the eyelids or there is pain while opening the eyelids. It is Vaatja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, it manifests in the eyes which are suffered from Vaata and Pitta. Eyelids can not be opened easily. This is S`hushkaakshipaaka.

Anyatovaata / Paryas`hru:

Vaayu causes pain in the regions like Avat`u, Karn`a, S`hira, Hanu, Manyaa, Bhroo and Netra. It is called asAnyatovaata. It is Vaataja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, Vaayu residing at Mannyaa, Akshi, S`hamkha causes pain. It is also called asParyas`hru.

Amlaadhyushita / Amloshita:

Amla Janita Pittadhyushitam Amlaadhyushita |

Due to Amla and Vidaahee food, eye gets covered by S`hopha. It becomes red and bluish. It is called asAmlaadhyushita. It is Pittaja and Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, due to vitiated and aggravated Pitta, Rakta, eyes turn to S`hyaavalohita colour. There isS`hopha, Daaha, Paaka, As`hru. A person sees muddy. It is Amloshita.


There is formation of copper coloured lines on the eyeball. There may or may not be pain. The lines get free from blood (Virajyanti). It is called as Sirotpaata. It is Raktaja and Saadhya. It is S`huklaMan`d`alastha Vikaaraaccording to Vaagbhat`a.

Siraaharsha / Siraapraharsha:

When Sirotpaata remains untreated it causes Siraaharsha. There are secretions of clean blood. A person can not see. It is Siraaharsha. It is Raktaja and Saadhya.

As per Vaagbhat`a, it is S`huklaMan`d`alastha Vikaara.


According to Vaagbhat`a, there is S`hopha, Samrambha, As`hrukaalushya, Kaphopadigdhatva. There are moving pains.


Drisht`igata Roga : (Su. U. 7)

There are 12 Drisht`igata diseases according to Sus`hruta.

Name of the diseases:


Su. U. 7 (12 diseases) A.H.U.12/32-33 (27 Diseases)

(A) Asaadhya

(Y) Yaapya

(S) – Saadhya

Vaataja Timira Vaataja Linganaas`ha (A)
Pittaja Timira Pittaja Linganaas`ha (A)
Kaphaja Timira Kaphaja Linganaas`ha (S)
Raktaja Timira Sandargaja Linganaas`ha (A)
Saannipaatika Timira Sannipaataja Linganaas`ha (A)
Parimlaayi Raktaja Linganaas`ha (A)
Pittavidagdha Drisht`i Aupasargika Linganaas`ha (A)
S`hleshmavidagdha Drisht`i Gambheeraa Drisht`i (A)
Dhoomadars`hee Hrasvajaa Drisht`i / Hrasvadars`hinee (A)
Hrasvajaad`ya Vaataja Kaacha (Y)
Nakulaandhya Pittaja Kaacha (Y)
Gambheerikaa Kaphaja Kaacha (Y)
Samsargaja Kaacha (Y)
Sannipaataja Kaacha (Y)
Raktaja Kaacha (Y)
Nakulaandhya (Y)
Vaataja Timira (S)
Pittaja Timira (S)
Kaphaja Timira (S)
Raktaja Timira (S)
Samsargaja Timira (S)
Sannipaatja Timira (S)
Pittavidagdhaa Drisht`i (S)
Doshandha (S)
Ushn`avidagdhaa Drisht`i (S)
Vidagdhaamla Drisht`i (S)
Dhoomara (S)


  1. Prathama Pat`alagata Timira
  2. Dviteeya Pat`alagata Timira
  3. Triteeya Pat`alagata Timira
  4. Chaurtha Pat`alagata Timira

Prathama Pat`alagata Timira:

Dosha get harbored in to the Prathama Pat`ala of Drisht`i after traversing through the Siraa. The symptoms is that a person does not see clear. A person can see the objects unclearly.

Due to Vaata, person sees the objects of Arun`a Varn`a.

Due to Pitta, person sees the objects of Neela and Peeta Varn`a.

Due to Kapha, person sees the objects of Sita Varn`a.

Due to Rakta, person sees the objects of Rakta Varn`a.

Due to Sannipaata, person sees the objects of different Varn`a.

It is Saadhya.


Dviteeya Pat`alagata Timira:

This Pat`ala is harbored in the Medas. There is more loss of vision than in the Prathama Pat`ala. A person sees different things in front of him like hairs, net Jaalaka etc. a person feels longer object nearer and nearer object longer. A person can not see Soocheepaas`ha.

It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, a person sees absent objects also. A person can not see minute objects. Longer Onjectsare not seen properly. Dosha harboured in to Dviteeya Pat`ala cause to see rounded objects. This is also called asTimira.


Triteeya Pat`alagata Timira (Timira):

A person is unable to see the objects at the upper or lower side. Big object is seen as if it is covered by cloth. A person sees other without ear, nose and eyes.

Drisht`is is changed to the colour as per the dominance of the Dosha. When Dosha are resided at the lower side, a person can not see the nearer objects. When Dosha are resided at the upper side, a person can not see the longer objects. When Dosha are resided at the sides then a person can not see laterally. When Dosha are resided all over the eye, person sees the objects mixed (Sankula). When Dosha are at the center, a person sees an object as if it is bifurcated. This is called as Timira.

It is Saadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is formation of Kaacha in Drisht`i. a person sees as if the object is covered by thin clothe. The vision dimiNishes gradually. The Drisht`i gets Coloured as per the Dosha.


Chaturtha Pat`alagata Timira (Linganaas`ha / Neelikaa / Kaacha) :

Vision is completely blocked, which is called as Linganaas`ha. It is also called as Neelikaa or Kaacha.

It is Yaapya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, when Triteeya Pat`alagata Timira is not treated properly, then the Dosha get harbouredin to the Chaturtha Pat`ala. They cover the Drisht`iMan`d`ala. It manifests in the Linganaas`ha ultimately.


Vaataja Timira:

A person looks objects moving. The vision is muddy, Arun`aabha and Vyaaviddha.

According to Vaagbhat`a, a person sees the objects distorted. (Vyaaviddham Iva) He sees the objects moving,Aavila (Muddy), Arun`a, clear frequently. An object which is straight is seen as if it is curved. Aggravated Kaachagives symptoms as if Drisht`i is covered by smoke and fog (Rajodhoomaavrita Drisht`i)

Pittaja Timira:

A person sees the objects blue and black coloured.

According to Vaagbhat`a, a person sees lightining (Vidyut). A person sees generally blue coloured things. Drisht`iturns to blue coloured Kaacha and sees related things like Indradhanush etc.

Kaphaja Timira:

A person sees Snigdha, Sita (white coloured), as if water is accumulated in the eyes.

According to Vaagbhat`a, a person sees objects unctuous and white. Kapha can be seen clearly in the Drisht`i. it hampers vision.

Raktaja Timira:

A person sees red, green, dark brown, black coloured objects.

According to Vaagbhat`a, a person sees the object red coloured and darkened. Drisht`i becomes red and black (Raktaa and Krishn`a). The same coloured objects are seen by a person. In the Linganaas`ha, Drisht`i becomes dull and visionless.

Saannipaataja Timira / Samsargaja or Saannipaatika Timira:

A person looks objects different coloured and shattered. An object may be seen as divided into many parts.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there are mixed symptoms in the Samsargaja and Saannipaatika Timira. A person suddenly sees clearly and suddenly vision goes dull.



Pitta with Rakta causes Parimlaayi. A person sees yellow coloured all around. He sees as if it looks like at the time of sunrise. A person sees Khadyota all over.

Six types of Raagapraapta Linganaas`ha:

Due to Vaayu, vision turns to red colour;

Due to Pitta, Parimlaayi is manifested and it turns to blue coloured;

Due to Kapha, vision turns to white colour.

Due to Rakta, it turns to red colour.

Due to all the dosha, it turns to mixed colour.


Parimlaayi (Kaacha):

It is caused due to Pitta. The vision becomes like Sthoola Kaacha. The colour turns to dark red. Vision turns toMlaayi and slightly blue coloured. If the Dosha are depleted, then a person can see. It is Pittja and Yaapya.


In Linganaas`ha, Drisht`i Man`d`ala, turns to Arun`a Varn`a. it is rough and Chanchala due to Vaata Prakopa.

Due to Pitta Prakopa, it becomes, blue coloured, Kaamsyaabha or Peeta.

Due to Kapha, Drisht`i Man`d`ala becomes Bahala, Snigdha, and white like S`hankha.

In Tridoshaja Linganaas`ha, Drisht`iMan`d`ala turns to different colour.


Parimlaayi Kaacha (Araaga) = Timira

Parimlaayi Kaacha (Raaga) = Kaacha – Linganaas`ha


Pittavidagdha Drisht`i:

The vision turns to yellow colour due to Pitta. The objects look like yellow coloured. When Dosha are reached toTriteeya Pat`ala, a person sees only at the night and not at the day time; as Pitta gets pacified in the Night. It isSaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, Drisht`i becomes Peeta (yellow coloured).

S`hleshmavidagdha Drisht`i:

Due to this vision turns to white colour. When the Dosha are harbored in to the Triteeya Pat`ala, a person can not see in the Night but can see in the daytime. It is Saadhya. This is Naktaandhya according to Maadhava Nidaana.


A person sees the objects with the smoke (Dhooma) due to S`hoka, Jvara, Aayaasa, S`hirobhitaapa. It is Pittajaand Saadhya.


A person sees in the day with difficulty and the objects are seen smaller than they are. A person is visionless in the night. It is Pittaja and Asaadhya.


It is Tridoshaja and Asaadhya. Vision shines like the vision of Nakula. It is Tridoshaja and Asaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, Drisht`i of a person gets lightened like Nakula (Mongoose) due to the accumulation of the Dosha in the Drisht`i. a person sees different colours in the daytime and unables to see in the night.

Gambheerikaa / Gambheeraa Drisht`i:

This is Vaataja and Asaadhya. The vision is constricted. There is pain. It is Vaataja and Asaadhya.

According to Vaagbhat`a, there is constriction of Drisht`igata Siraa due to Vaayu. It enters in to the Drisht`i Man`d`ala. It is called as Antargambheeraa Drisht`i.

Hrasvaajaad`ya / Hrasvadars`hinee:

According to Vaagbhat`a, it is Pittaja. Drisht`i turns to blue colour. It becomes unctuous. It is possible to see nearer objects.


According to Vaagbhat`a, when sun sets down, Dosha become stagnant causing Stambha of Drisht`i. It is called as Doshandha.

When Dosha get displaced from the Drisht`i, then a person can see in the daytime.

Raatryandha / Ushn`a Vidagdha Drisht`i:

A person whose temperature is raised due to fire, sunlight etc; when sinks in to the cold water suddenly; heat in the body with the Tridosha and Rakta traverse to the upward direction towards eyes. There is muddyness on theS`huklaMan`d`ala. Vision is muddy in the daytime. This is called as Raatryandha which is caused due toUshn`avidagdha Drisht`i. It is named as Ushn`a Vidagdha Drisht`i by Arun`adatta.

Amlavidagdha Drisht`i:

Due to excessive sour food, Drisht`i gets accumulated by the Dosha with Rakta. There is Kan`d`oo, Kleda also. It is also called as Amlavidaghda Drisht`i.


A person suffering from S`hoka, Jvara, S`hiroroga; Vaayu etc Dosha cause the vision affected by smoke; due to which a person sees objects smoky. It is called as Dhoomara.

Aupasargika Linganaas`ha:

A person having less mental strength, when sees something miraculous; Dosha in the eyes dries out the Drisht`i. it resembles to the colour of Vaid`oorya. Drisht`i becomes stagnant. There is no pain (Prakritistha Iva). This is called as Aupasargika Linganaas`ha.

These symptoms are told by Maadhavanidaana in Animittaja Linganaas`ha.

There are 6 Upadravaa of Linganaas`ha: – A. H. U. 14.5-8

  1. Aavartakee
  2. S`harkaraa
  3. Raajeematee
  4. ChhinnamS`hukaa
  5. Chandrakee
  6. Chhatrakee


When Dosha or one of the Dosha, are harboured in to the Prathama Pat`ala, a person can not see the clear objects also without any cause. A.H.U.12/1

Baahya Kaaran`aja: – (S.U.7/42-46). It is of two types:

  1. Sanimittaja
  2. Animittaja



There is S`hirobhitaapa, Abhishyanda. It is Asaadhya.


Vision turns to Vaidoorya Varn`a. Vision turns to utmost clarity. It is Asaadhya.


Abhighaataja Drisht`i:

There is Vidaaran`a and Avasaada of Drisht`i. It is considered under Saannipaatika.



Due to the trauma, there is Samrambha (having inflamed), Raaga (Redness), and Tumulaa Rujaa (severe pain).


Netrarogasya Saamatva:

Saamataa of Netraroga manifests with Udeern`avedanaa, Raaga, S`hotha, Gharsha, Nistoda, S`hoola, and As`hru(tears)


Netrarogasya Niraamatva:

There is mild pain (Manda Vedanaa), Kan`d`oo, Samrambha. There are no tears (As`hrupras`haantataa). The colour of the eye becomes normal (Pras`hastavarn`ataa). These are the signs of Pakva Dosha.










Vaataja Kaacha Pittaja Kaacha Kaphaja Kaacha Saannipaatika Kaacha Raktaja Kaacha Parimlaayi Pittavidagdha Drisht`i S`hleshmavidagdha Drisht`i Dhoomadars`hee/ Dhoomara Nakulaandhya Gambheerikaa Doshandha Ushn`avidagdha Drisht`i Amlavidagdha Drisht`i Aupasargika Linganaas`ha
Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya
Yaapya Yaapya Yaapya Yaapya Yaapya Yaapya Yaapya
Dosha Pittaja Pittaja

Pitta Vidagdha

Kaphaja Pittaja Tridoshaja

Dosha Nichita(V)

Vaataja Dosha Stambha(V) Tridosha Dosha Sarakta (V) Dosha Vaataadi
Dhaatu Raktaja

Rakta Dusht`i

Upadhaatu Drik Siraa SankochaA.H.U.12/12
Sarvagata Roga 1 Vaata














As`hopha Paakaa
Svabhaava Mithyaachaaraat

Shad`aaatraat Drisht`im HantiS.U.6/20


Sadya Eva Drisht`im Hanti S.U.6/20


Saptaraatraat Drisht`im HantiS.U.6/20

Avayava Netra










Upas`haya Snigdha


Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Dosha Vaataja Pittaja Kaphaja Vaataja Pittaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja
Dhaatu Raktaja
Mala Sveda Pravartana Netra Mala
Sarvagata Roga 2 Hataadhimantha Vaataparyaaya S`hushka


Anyatovaata Amla




Man`d`alastha as perVaagbhat`a)



Man`d`alasthaas perVaagbhat`a)

Avayava Pakshma










S`hamkha – (V)

Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya
Dosha Vaataja Vaataja Vaataja

Vaataja &Pittaja

Vaataja Pittaja Kapha Prakopa


Dhaatu Raktaja Raktaja
Upadhaatu Netragata Antah Siraa




Krishn`agata Roga Savran`a s`hukra

Kshata S`hukra (V) – it is of three types


Dviteeya Pat`alagata

Triteeya Pat`alagata

Avran`a Shukra Paakaatyaya Ajakaajaata Shuddha S`hukra Siraa S`hukra
Saadhya Drisht`i Asameepastha




Ayugma S`hukraS.U.5/5; M.Ni.59/23




S`hankhendukunda Pratimaa Avabhaasam

Vaihaayasa Abhra Pratanu Prakaas`ham M.NI.59/24

Saadhya S.U.5/8

Krichchhra Krishn`a Man`d`alagata Kshata S`hukra(Krichchhrasaadhya – V)

Dviteeya Man`d`alagata Kshata S`hukra (Y – V)

Triteeya Man`d`alagata(A – V)

Gambheera Jaata




Bahula S`hukla



Asaadhya Asaadhya

Vichchhinna Madhhya





Dvi Pat`alaas`hrita












Antatah Lohita



Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya Antardrisht`I Vinaas`ha

Antah S`hyaava Kinchit Lohita






Vichchhinnam (V) A.H.U.10/31


Dosha Tridoshaja Kaphaja Kaphaja Tridosha
Dhaatu Raktaja Raktaja Raktaja (V) Raktaja Raktaja



S`huklagata Roga Prastaari Arma S`hukla Arma Lohitaarma Maamsaja

Arma /Adhimaamsaja

Snaayu Arma S`hukti Arjuna Pisht`aka Siraa Jaala /Jaalasamdnyita Siraa Pid`akaa Balaasaka /Balaasagrathita
Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Krichchhra S`hastrakrma Saadhya (V) S`hastrakrma Saadhya (V) S`hastrakrma Saadhya (V) S`hastrakrma Saadhya (V) S`hastra Saadhya S`hastra Saadhya(V)
Asaadhya Asita Praapta






Asita Praapta






Asita Praapta






Asita Praapta






Asita Praapta






Dosha Tridoshaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Pittaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Kaphaja
Dhaatu Maamsa Vriddhi (V) Maamsa Vriddhi (V) Raktaja

Maamsa PrachayaS.U.4/5





Mala S`hakrid Bheda(V)



Vartmagata Roga 1 Saamaanya


UtsangeeNi Kumbheekaa Pothakee Vartma S`harkaraa ArS`ho


S`hushkaars`ha Anjana


Bahala Vartma Vartma


Klisht`aVartma Pakshma S`haata Kapha Utklisht`a
Avayava Vartma
Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya
Dosha Dosha Prakopa Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja(Vaagbhat`a) Pittaja Kaphaja
Dhaatu Maamsa VriddhiS.U.3/3

Rakta VriddhiS.U.3/3

Raktaja(Vaagbhat`a) Raktaja Maamsa Vriddhi(V) Raktaja
Upadhaatu Vartmagata SiraaS.U.3/3




Vartmagata Roga 2 Vartma Kardama S`hyaava Vartma Klinna Vartma Aklinna Vartma /Pilla Vaatahata Vartma Arbuda Nimesha S`hon`itaars`ha Lagan`a Bisa Vartma Pakshmakopa Krichchhra


Upas`haya Pakshma Uddharan`a Mardana
Anupas`haya Vaayu



Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya(V) Asaadhya
Yaapya Yaapya
Dosha Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Vaataja Tridoshaja Vaataja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Tridoshaja Vaataja Pittaja
Dhaatu Raktaja(Vaagbhat`a) Raktaja(V) Raktaja



Netra Roga

Sandhigata Roga (9)

Pooyaalasa Upanaaha Pooyaasraava S`hleshmaasraava Raktaasraava Pittaasraava


Parvan`ee Alajee Krimigranthi
Avayava Kaneenikaa Sandhi Drisht`iSandhi Kaneenikaa Kaneenikaa Kaneenikaa Kaneenikaa Krishn`aS`hukla Sandhi

Vartmas`hukla Sandhi (V)

Krishn`aS`hukla Sandhi


VartmaPakshma Sandhi VartmaS`hukla Sandhi

Kaneenikaa (V)

Apaanga (V)

Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya Saadhya
Krichchhra S`hastra Saadhya(V) S`hastra Saadhya(V) S`hastra Saadhya (V) S`hastra Saadhya (V)
Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya Asaadhya
Dosha Tridoshaja Kaphaja Tridoshaja Kaphaja Pitta? Pittaja

Vaata Prakopa (V)

Pitta? Tridosaja Kaphaja
Dhaatu Rakta Dusht`I (V)

Maamsa Paaka (V)

Rakta Sraava(V)

Rakta Dusht`I Rakta Dusht`i

Rakta Sraava(V)

Upadhaatu Tvak Paaka(V) Jalavaahee Siraa (V)


Netra Roga Vaataja Pittaja Kaphaja Saanni
Svabhaava Daarun`aS.U.1/20
Avayava Netra
Dosha Vaata Prakopa Pitta Prakopa Kapha Prakopa Tridosha Prakopa
Dosha_Gun`a Kapha =Pichchhila, Guru
Upadhaatu Siraa Dusht`iS.U.1/20
Mala Netra Mala AnupasthitiC.Chi.26/129 Netra Mala

Netra Mala Dusht`i

Netra Mala

Netra Mala Dusht`i

Netra Mala

Netra Mala Dusht`i





C.Chi.26, A.H.U.8-16, S.U.9-17, N.R. NetraRoga


NetraRoga are the diseases of the organ Netra.

These Vyaadhi are considered as MadhyamaMaargagataVyaadhi.


Abhishyanda Should be treated by Teekshn`aGan`d`oosha, Naavana and Langhana (except in Vaataja) in thePoorvaroopaavasthaa.


Administration of Saamyaakas`hana and S`hodhana Yoga to as to pacify Dosha like Vaata.

To avoid causative factors of diseases and which aggravate Dosha.

Aas`hchotana is useful in all type of ophthalmic disorders.


VaatajaAbhishyanda and VaatajaAdhimantha:

o Snehana (Puraan`a GhritaSvedana à Siraavyadha à Sneha Virechana àBasti

o Tarpan`a

o Put`apaaka

o Dhoomapaana

o Aas`hchotana

o Sneha Parisheka

o S`hirobasti

o Nasya

o Siraavedhana should be done at Lataat`a, Apaanga, Upanaasikaa region.

o Sechana should be done with decoction of AanoopaMaamsa , JalajaMaamsa

Amla and VaataghnaDravya

o Tarpan`a should be done with all Sneha except Taila.

Anyatovaata and Vaataparyaya:

o PoorvabhaktaGhritapaana

o SaksheeraBhojana

o VaatajaAbhishyandaChikitsaa


o Ghritapaana

o Anjana

o Nasya

o Tarpan`a

o Parisheka

Pittaja Abhishyanda and Pittaja Adhimantha:

o Raktamokshan`a

o Sramsana

o Nasya

o Lepa

o Anjana

o Seka

First Aamapaanchana should be achieved then Snehapaana should be given followed by Siraamoksha. GenerallyPittaghnaChikitsaa should be adopted. It should be treated as per PittajaVisarpaChikitsaa.

Amlaadhyushita and S`hukta:

o Amlaadhyushita should be treated by Chikitsaa similar to Pittaabhishyanda however, Raktamokshan`a is contraindicated.

o According to Vaagbhat`aS`hukti should be treated by Chikitsaa similar to Pittaabhishyanda.

o Nasya

o Anjana

o Lepa

o Seka

o Sramsana



o Ghrita should be used both internally as well as externally.

o Chikitsaa is similar to Raktaja and PittajaAbhishyanda, PittavidagdhaDrisht`i and PittajaVisarpa.

Kaphaja Abhishyanda and Kaphaja Adhimantha:

o RookshaChikitsaa.

o Sveda, Avapeed`a, Anjana, Dhooma, Seka, Pralepa, Kavalagraha, Aas`hchotana and Put`apaaka.

o TiktaDravya Siddha Ghritapaana (On every 4th day after Apatarpan`a)

o Raktamokshan`a.

o Followed with Kaphaghna dietary regime, Svedana and Anulepa.

Balaasagrathita, Pisht`aka and Praklinna Vartma:

o Chikitsaa is similar to KaphajaAbhishyanda and Adhimantha

o Nasya

o SamsarjanaKrama


o Vamana

o Virechana

o Shirovirechana

o Raktamokshan`a

o Kshaaranjana


o Anjana


Raktaabhishyanda, RaktajaAdhimantha, Sirotpaata, Siraaharsha, Siraajaala, Arjuna, Avran`aS`hukra:

o Snehana (Kaumbha Ghrita or Maamsarasa)

o Raktamokshan`a (Siraavedha)

o S`hirovirechana, VirechanaDravya Siddha Ghritapaana

o SthaanikaaUpachaara: Pradeha, Parisheka, Nasya, Dhooma, Aas`hchyotana, Anjana,Tarpan`a and SnigdhaPut`apaaka

o S`hatadhautaGhritaAbhyanga

Raktaabhishyanda, RaktajaAdhimantha, Sirotpaata and Siraaharsha with Vaatajanubandha

o MriduSveda

o Jalaukaavachaaran`a and Ghritapaana in MahateeMaatraa. (In Vaatavritta Rakta Bahus`hon`ita Avasthaa)

o VaatavrittaRaktaAlpas`hon`itaAvasthaa Should be treated by Chikitsaa similar to Pittaabhishyanda.

Avran`aShukra: should be treated with Raktamokshan`a and other procedures of RaktajaAbhishyanda and Lekhyaanajana.

Savran`aShukra: should be Kshaaranajana mentioned in Balaasagrathita

Dviteeyapat`alaAs`hritaSavran`aShukra( DvitvaggataSavran`aS`hukra + S`hoola ):

o This should be treated by NetraTarpan`a with VaataghnaDravya.


o Should be treated by Chikitsaa similar to Pittaabhishyanda.

o AmlavargaAshchotana


o UdakaVisraavan`a should be done by puncturing on lateral (Paars`hva) side. Then the cavity should be filled with GomaamsaChoorn`a.

o If the lids are getting elevated more due to this Ajakaajaata then Lekhana should be done frequently.

Sas`hophaPaaka and As`hophaPaaka:

o Snehana, Svedana

o Siraavyadha (ApaangaUpanaasikaaLalaat`a)

o Snehana à Virechana

o Nasya

o Seka

o Aas`hchyotana

o Put`apaaka

o Anjana

o Amloshita / Amlaadhyushita should be treated by PittaabhishyandaChikitsaa.

Pilla (Chikitsaa Similar to Praklinnavartma):

o Snehana followed by Vamana

o Siraavyadha, Virechana, S`hirovirechanaAsthaapana followed by VartmaLekhana

o Patient of Pilla should be treated by frequent VartmaLekhana, Siraavyadha, Virechana and regular SekaAas`hchyotana, Anjana, Naavana and Dhoomapaana.


o Raktamokshan`a After Snehana and Svedana

o Vran`aS`hodhana / ChakshushyaDravyaUpanaaha

o All the NetrapaakaharaKriyaa are advisable. (Antahs`huddhi and Bahihs`huddhi)

Praklinna Vartma and Aklinna Vartma:

o Snehana, Siraavyadha, Virechana, S`hirovirechana, Aasthaapana

o NetraTarpan`a

o Seka

o Anjana

o Aas`hchyotana

o Nasya

o Dhooma

LekhyaRoga Following Vyaadhi are included under this category as Lekhana is the first line of treatment for all these Vyaadhi.

  1. Utsangini
  2. BahalaVartma
  3. KardamaVartma
  4. S`hyaavaVartma
  5. BaddhaVartma
  6. Klisht`aVartma
  7. Pothaki
  8. VartmaS`harkaraa
  9. Kumbhikaa


  • Snehana should be administered followed by Vamana and Virechana.
  • The patient should be advised to sleep in a room devoid of excessive wind flow and sun.
  • The patient should be advised to lie in supine position. Then the diseased eyelid should be inverted by holding in left thumb and left index finger.
  • Fomentation should be done with the help of a cloth dipped in warm water.
  • The portion should be dried with the help of gauze.
  • Lekhana should be done with the help of Man`d`laagraS`hastra or Anus`hastra like S`hephaaliPatra etc.
  • When bleeding stops Svedana should be administered Manahs`hilaadiPratisaaran`a should be applied.
  • After some time the lids should be cleansed with warm water and Ghrita should be sprinkled.
  • Then the wound should be treated as mentioned in Vran`opakrama.
  • Svedana and Avapeed`aNasya should be administered after 3 days after Lekhana Karma.

DurlikhitaVartma: Snehana should be administered followed by Lekhana.

Atilikhita Vartma: Sneha Sveda etc Vaatahara Upakrama

Vartmaavabandha, Klisht`a Vartma, Bahala Vartma, Pothaki:

Prachchhaana followed by Lekhana with the help of an S`hastra.

S`hyaava Vartma / Kardama Vartma: Lekhana

Kumbhakini / Kumbheekaa, S`harkaraa, Utsangini


Kat`hinaVartmaPid`akaa Bhedana should be done in Pakvaavasthaa followed by Lekhana.

BhedyaRoga Following Vyaadhi are included in this category as Bhedana is the first line of treatment for all these Vyaadhi.

  1. Bisagranthi
  2. Lagan`a
  3. Anjananaamikaa
  4. Krimigranthi
  5. S`hleshmopanaaha


o All the five Vyaadhi should be treated by Snehana, then Svedana by (juice obtained from leaves after churning / fragmented leaves) Patrabhanga. Then they should be treated by general Vran`opakrama till they acquirePaakaavasthaa. After that Bhedana followed by Pratisaaran`a should be done in Paakaavasthaa.

o Also after BhedanaVran`aropan`a should be done.


o Svedana à Pakvaavasthaa

o Bhedana with the help of a S`hastra

o Avachoorn`ana with SaindhavaadiChoorn`a

o Then application of Ghrita + Madhu followed by Vran`aBandha.


o AlpaAvasthaa:

Bhedana by Pratisaaran`a

o MahaAvasthaa:

Bhedana by S`hastra

Kshaarakarma and Agnikarma




Chhedya Roga – FollowingVyaadhi are included in this category as Chhedana is the first line of treatment for all theseVyaadhi.

1. Prastaaree Arma

2. S`hushkaarma

3. Raktaarma

4. Adhimaamsaarma

5. Snaayvaarma

6. Siraajaala

7. Siraa Pid`akaa

8. Parvan`ikaa

9. Ars`ha

10. Arbuda

11. Pakshmakopa

Saamaanya Chkitsaa:

  • All these Chhedya Roga should be treated with Teekshn`a Gun`ayukta medicines that are also either Vaamaka orVirechaka.
  • Chikitsaa similar to Abhishyanda considering the Dosha Praadhaanya should be given.

Vis`hesha Chikitsaa:

  • Panchavidha Arma: Arma Chhedana S`hastrakarma:

1. Vamana, Virechana and S`hirovirechana should be done as prerequisite of Arma Chhedana. Then afterSamsarjana Krama the patient should be advised Snigdha Bhojana the next day. Then the patient should be given a suitable sitting position. Then dusting with Laavan`a Choorn`a(Saindhava) should be done at the site of Arma. Arma S`hithilikaran`a is achieved by this process.

2. Svedana should be administered at the site of Arma.

3. Then the Arma should be moved about (Prighat`t`ana).

4. The upper and lower eyelids should be fixed properly.

5. Then the Arma should be held by a Bad`is`ha Yantra at the site of wrinkles. Then the patient should be advised to look laterally. Then the Arma should be lifted up with the help of a Muchun`d`ee (forceps) or a threaded needle.

6. Precaution should be taken not to cut the Arma while lifting up.

7. Then the Arma should be fixed with the help of three Bad`is`ha Yantra and cut with the help of a sharpMan`d`alaagra S`hastra.

8. Precaution should be taken while cutting so as not to incise the Kaneenaka. Kaneenaka Chheda may lead to excessive bleeding or Naad`ee Vran`a formation. 1/4th part of Arma should be retained at the site while cutting, as to avoid any harm to the eye sight.

9. Jaalavat Arma or an Arma which is touching the S`huklaman`d`ala should also be treated the same way.

10. Post-procedural regime Partisaaran`a followed by Vran`a Bandha. Then three days after Chhedana,Bandha should be opened, Karasvedana should be applied and then Vran`a S`hodhana and Ropan`a Chikitsaa should be done.

11. If some part of Arma is left over after Chhedana, it should be treated by Lekhana Anjana.

12. Alpa / Dadhinibha / Neelavarn`ee / Raktavarn`ee / Dhoosara Varn`ee / Tanu Arma should be treated byChikitsaa similar to S`hukra.


The Siraa which are Kat`hina, should be lifted up with the help of Bad`is`ha Yantra and then cut with Man`d`alaagra S`hastra. The Pratisaaran`a Yoga mentioned in Arma are also indicated in this and also all the Chikitsaa indicated in all Netra Roga should be followed by considering the Dosha Praadhaanya.

Siraa Pid`akaa:

If the Pid`akaa doesnt subside by medicines then these should be incised by the procedure similar to Arma Chhedana.The Pratisaaran`a Yoga mentioned in Arma are also indicated in this and also all the Chikitsaa indicated in all Netra Roga should be followed after considering the Dosha Praadhaanya.


This should be treated by Svedana at the site of Sandhi followed by Chhedana Karma. Then Pratisaaran`a of Saindhavaand Madhu should be applied. If still some part of the Pid`akaa is left over, it should be treated by Lekhana Pratisaaran`a or Lekhana Anjana.

Ars`ha (Vartmaars`ha, S`hushkaars`ha), Arbuda:

These should be treated by Svedana followed by Chhedana Karma. Then Pratisaaran`a of Saindhavaadi Pratisaaran`ashould be applied. If still some part of the Ars`ha is left over, then when the bleeding stops Agnikarma should be done with the help of S`halaakaa and also Avalrkhana with Kshaara should be done.



  • Adhikaara Netra Roga



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