‘sigru’ is botanically identified an ‘MoringaOleifera’ which belongs to ‘Moringaceae family. The drug is commonly a tree. The plant is documented to pocess beneficial effects as helmentic action and svedopaka actions. The present review is an attempt to high light the Various characters and uses of the drug ‘sigru’ (MoringaOleifera).
RegVeda documented ‘Sigru’ as a domestic plant. Dharma sutras prohibit its utility as tooth brush as well as in rituals.
BrhatTrayis have quoted ‘Sigru’ extensively in their works. Generally its bark is useful for krimi,seeds are used for Nasya Karma and leaves are for Sveda.
Nighantu texts describe sigrubija as svetamarica. The author is of the opinion that svetaMarica may not be the seeds of Sigru. The unprocessed fruits of Piper nigrum will be white in colour are probably interpreted as the seeds of Sigru. Leaves of Sigru are considered to be Sukrala and its seeds are Avrsya.
GANAS AND VARGAS
- Caraka : Krmighna, Svedopaga, Sirovirecanopaga
- Susruta : Varunadi, SiroVirecana
- Vagbhata : Varunadi
English -Drumstick tree, Horseradish tree, Bentree
Hindi – Saijna, Shajna
Malayalam – Muringa
Sanskrit – Shobanjana, Sigru
Tamil – Moringa, Murungai
Kannada – Nugge, Murunga
Telugu – Munaga, Mulaga, tellamunaga
In Brhat Trayi Texts described two varieties viz, Sigru (white) and Sigruka (red). Sigru dvaya is described by Susruta (s.s.ka 5/73). Bhava misra quoted three varieties Syama(blakish), Sveta(white) and Rakta(red).
Syama – Grahi
Sveta – Dahakara
Rakta – Saraka (Madhu sigru)
Raja Nighantu mentioned about Nila Sigru as well
- Rasa – Katu, Tikta
- Guna – Laghu, Ruksa, Tikshna
- Virya – Usna Virga
- Vipaka – Katu
Kapha – Vatahara
- Bark Contain : Sterols,Terpens(Bayrenol)
- Leaves contain: Aminoacids,Serine,glycine, Glutamic acid.
- Whole plant contain: Moringine,Moringinine,Bayrenol,Indole acetic acid,Ptereyospermine,Carotene.
- Flower Contain: Onercetin, Kaempferol.
- Root bark
- Stem bark
- Root bark juice à10-20ml
- Seed powder à 1-3gm
- Stem bark decocation à 50-100ml
Sigru is useful in Jvara, Krimi, Kustha, Prameha and Siroroga. The bark is useful in stimulating secretion of digestive juices. The seed powder is used as nasya in Siroroga. The seed oil is used as a vedanasthapana. The Phala and puspa are useful in Amavata, Katisula, Svasa, Kasa, Plihasotha.
à In pratisyaya – Root of sigru should be taken with ghee and oil as Anupana.
àIn Netraroga- Eyes are cleansed with the juice of sigru leaves
à In Krimiroga – Decocation of Sigru stem bark is given with vidanga and boney.
àIn Dadru Kustha – Sigru root bark paste is applied externally.
à A mixture of water and sigru seed powder should be used as nasya in Kaphajasiroroga and Murcchha.
- Ekangarira rasa
- Ratnagiri rasa
The use of Moringaoleifera (Sigru) for medicinal Purpose may seems to have its roots in folklore and myth, but indigenous people have found much success in using various parts of the tree to cure many physical aliments.
à Root bark and bark of moringa are used for poor circulation to increase the apetite and stimulate digestive system.
àMoringa flowers are used to cure inflammation.
- The juice from the leaves and stem bark of Moringaoleifera inhibited staph.aureus(Bhawasar et al.1965).
- 4 (a-L_Rhamnosyloxy) isothiocyanate showed antimicrobial activity (Ind.J.exp .Biol;1981) and antibacterial activity (Phillipp.J.Sci.1960) Bhatnagar eta; 1961 and Bhawasar 1965).
- The bark extract showed antifumgal activity agains Micro gypseum, Trichomentagrophyfes,Coandidaalbicans and Helminsativum(Bhatnagar et al.,1961).
- 50% ethunolic extract of root bark showed antiviral activity (Dhar et al., 1968 and Babbar et al., 1970).
- Moringaoleifera root entract (50% ethanolic ) at a dose of 200mg/kg led to foetalresorption in 60% of female pregnant rats (Prakash and Mathur, 1976)
- Ethanolic extract (50%) of the fruit, root and root bark were also found to have spasmogenic effect on the isolated guinea pig ileum (Dhar et al.,1968).
- The alcoholic extract of root bark showed anti-inflammatory activity against formalin indused rat paw oedema ,cotton pellet implantation and granuloma pouch in does of 500,750 and 1000 mg/kg oral dose respectively in albinorats. It also showed analgesic (Singh et al, 1972).
- The seedextract agglutinated blood cells of various animals (sathe et al.,1970).
- The alcoholic extract of leaves caused an initial rise in B.P in mongrel dogs and cats followed by a gradual fall lasting for a considerable duration and it also potentiated the response of norepinephrine on B.P and nictitating membrane. Its action on B.P suggested the presence of a potest adrenergic nemone blocking substance(s) in the alcoholic extract (singh et al., 1976).
- The fruit extract of Moringaconcanensis showed the LD50> 1000mg/kg(Aswal et al., 1984b)