Punnaga(calophyllum inophyllum)

 

Punnaga is a large evergreen commonly called Alaxendrion laurel. Bell tree. It is a small branching and slow growing with broad and irregular crown in Ayurveda, It is mentioned in the Name Punnaga it is explained for various medical purposes. We can find may be references in Nigandu and Samhithas in modern taxonomy. This plant categorized under clusiaceae or Guttiferaceae and it is known by Botanical name Calophyllum inophyllum. Its main action is Raktha stambhaka and Varnya. It is commonly seen in Asia, Africa, Sri lanka, Pacific region.

Punnaga is one among the important drug which is used in Ayurveda for Raktapitta, Raktatisara etc.

LITERARY REVIEW

 

Punnaga is the most Sanskrit name of the plant Calophyllum inophyllum, it is explained in Ma.ni, Kai.ni, Ra.ni etc. and having the synonyms like like Punnaga, Raktarenu, Sugandhi etc. The flower of Punnaga is sacred to Lord Vishnu, forming his garland. Afragrant flower it adorns the hair goddess Lalitambika in the Lalitha sahasram. The flower is used in worship of lord Vishnu as a medicinal Punnaga is widely used for many formulations in Ayurveda. It is administered for Raktapitta, Rakta srava, Raktatisara etc. It is described by Charaka, Vagbhatta etc and its oil is extracted and it is widely used.

 

SYNONYMS

 

  • Sugandhi Puspa – Flower having good smell.
  • Deergamoola – Having long root.
  • Devavallabha – Beautiful flower liked by god
  • Pitakesara– Having yellow coloured stamens
  • Tunga – seen in Himalayan regions
  • Vibbudha –having expanded flower
  • Raktakesara– having red coloured stamens
  • Kanjana– golden coloured flowers
  • Punnaga– pumkesarayukta pushpa liked by naga

 

GANA AND VARGA

 

  • Kula – Nagakesara kula
  • Gana – Charaka – Varnya

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

English      :        Alexander lauren

Hindi          :        Sultan campa, Sultan campak

Kannada   :        Uma

Sanskrit     :        Punnagah

Malayalam:        Punna

Tamil         :        Punnai, Punnagam

Telugu       :        Ponnavittulu

 

PARTS USED

 

  • Bark
  • Leaves
  • Seeds

 

MATRA

 

  • Twak kwatha: 50 – 100ml
  • Taila: 2 – 5 drops
  • Beeja Churna: 3 – 5g

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

Friedelin, β – Sitosterol, Canophyllor, Calophylloide,(+) – inophylloide, inophyllum A, B and D, Calophyllin B etc.

 

PROPERTIES

 

Rasa: – Madhura, Kashaya.

Guna: –Laghu, Rooksha

Veerya:– Sheeta

Vipaka: –Madhura.

Doshakara: –Kaphapittasamaka

 

KARMA

 

  • Vedanasthapana
  • Raktapitta Samaka
  • Vrana ropana
  • Mutrakricchrahara
  • Raktapittahara
  • Raktatisaragna
  • Raktasthampaka
  • Varnya
  • Deepaka
  • Dahaprashamana
  • Uttejaka
  • Vamaka
  • Rakta Shodaka
  • Sara

 

INDICATIONS

 

  • Raktapitta
  • Raktasrava
  • Raktatisara – Pravahika
  • Amavata – Sandhivata
  • Carmarvga
  • Mutrakrcchra – Puyameha
  • Netraroga – Sukra

 

THERAPEUTICS

 

  • Leaves of Punnaga are useful in Chicken pox, Scabies, Sunburn, Skin inflammation, Post natal lactation and Sickness, Eye catarrh and debility and as fish poison.
  • Bark is astringent, diuretic emmenagogue and given to babies with fever and running nose.
  • It is used in decoction in internal heamorrhage and as a wash for indolent ulcers.
  • Juice is purgative.
  • Gum exuding from bark is a remedy for wounds and ulcers.
  • It is emetic and purgative.
  • Seeds are useful in the treatment of Skin, Rash, and Rheumatism and as Vermifuge.
  • Oil expressed from seeds and known in Europe as Domba oil is Rubefacient and irritant but on the mucous membrane of genito – urinary organs it is specific.
  • It is highly esteemed external application in Rheumatism also in Gonorrhoea and gleet, also applied in Scabies.

 

FOLKLORE USES

 

  • Decoction of flowers given to cure Syphillis, eczema and insanity.
  • Netraroga – Infusion of Punnaga leaves will cure corneal opacity.
  • Kustha – Its Oil is applied externally in the skin disorders.

 

RESEARCH

 

  • Calophyllolide produced a slight bradychardia madose of 10mcg i.p in isolated perfused rabbit heart. It decreased the amplitude of concentration with an effect on rhythm but increased the coronary flow. It was found to be as effective as quinidine in suppressing ventricular ectopic tachychardia resulting from acute ml in days. It possessed vaso constrictor action on peripheral vessels in isolated rabbit ear perfusion.(Arora etal 1962)
  • Inophyllum B and P inhibited HIV reverse trancriptase(Ic5038 and 130nm respectively) and were active against HIV In cell culture(Ic501.4 and 1.6pm respectively)-(J-med.chem 1993,36,41,31)
  • Calophyllolide showed potent anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin – induced Oedema in rats EDSO was 10mg/kg orally. It also mshowed anti-inflammatory and anti – arthritic activity in Formaldehyde – induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in arts(I.J.M.B,1980,72,762).

 

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