PUNARNAVA – Botanically known as Boerhavia diffusa Linn under the Nyctaginaceae family
Punarnava is important herb with excellent therapeutic utility in shotha. Though modern research now and then reported it as Diuretic, it is not emphasized for Mutrala purpose in the major ayurvedic texts. It is appreciated as Rasayana drug in citera tree.
This plant is considered to be dry during summer and which recur during autumn according to sounaka.
Except in the context of vayasthapana group, Acharya Caraka quoted two types of Punarnava (kasahara, Anuvasanopaga and svedopaga groups). In sakha varga he described Punarnava with synonym “Katilla”. Acharya Sushrutha included both Varshabhu and Punarnava in Sakha varga.
In ayurvedic texts usually two variety mentioned, i.e. sveta and rakta Punarnava. They are identified as Boerhavia diffusa and T.Pertulacastrum respectively.
In Raja nighantu another variety Nila Punarnava is described.
SYNONYMS AND INTERPRETATION
- RAKTA PUNARNAVA
- KSHUDRA VARSHABHU
- RAKTA PUNARNAVA
- SHWETA MOOLA
- SHATA PUNYA
- GADA PUNYA
- LALA PUNARNAVA
- DEERGA PATRA
- MAHA VARSHABHU
- MANDALA PATRAKA
- RAKTA PATRAKA
- SADYO VISHOSHI
- VARSHA KETU
|Telugu||Erra galijeru, Atikamamidi|
|English||Horse purslene, Hogweed|
|Bengali n||Gada punya|
Punarnava is classified into different Ganas and Vargas according to different authors.
|Caraka Samhita||Vayasthapana, Kasahara , Svedopaga, Anuvasanopaga varga|
|Sushrutha Samhita||Vidarigandadi varga|
|Adarsha nighantu||Punarnavadi varga.|
|Priya nighantu||Shata pushpadi varga.|
|Dhanvantari nighantu and Shodala nighantu||Guduchyadi varga.|
|Bhavaprakasha nighantu||Guduchyadi varga|
|Kaiyadeva nighantu||Oshadhi varga.|
|Madanapala nighantu||Abhayadi varga|
|Raja nighantu||Mulakadi varga|
- Two Types
- Sveta Punarnava
- Rakta Punarnava
According to Raja nighantu another variety mentioned Nila Punarnava.
Distribution and habitat
Plant occurs throughout as a common weed almost in all parts of country, generally on flat and along road sides, also near water course. It ascends to 1,500 mts in Himalayan regions. Plant is also found in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Assam, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and other regions of country.
Grows throughout India in the warmer plains up to 7000 ft.
- Mula swarasa – 5-10 ml
- Mula curna – 1-6 gm
- Patra swarasa- 10-20 ml
- Mula curna – 5-10 gm (for vamana)
- Punarnavastaka kwatha curna
- Punarnavadi mandura
- Sukumara ghrita
- Sothagghna lepa.
Prayoga and uses
The drug Punarnava is antibilary, antipyretic, cardio tonic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, sodorific and stomachic.
It is used in anemia, calculus, cough, colic, haemorrhage, heart diseases, insomnia, internal inflammation, jaundice, leprosy and oedema.
Drug used in traditional medicine as antidote against dattura poisoning or dattura visa (toxic effect of Dattura metal linn), spider and snake bite poisons. The studies with petroleum, ether extract and their fractions have revealed diuretic action.
Prayojyanga –useful part
Plant contains punarvine 0.01-0.04 %, a slightly bitter alkaloid, potassium nitrate 0.52, chlorides and oils.
Ash contains sulphate, chlorides, nitrate and chlorate.
Pharmacology-mode of action
- Rasa -Madhura, Kashaya, Tikta
- Guna -Laghu, ruksha
- Vipaka -Madhura
- Virya -Usna
- Mala sangrahi
- Rakta vikarahara
- Mutra janana
|Priya nighantu||Shothahara, Pandu, Kamala, Mutrakruchra.
- Shotha-Kalka of Punarnava iswarmed and applied externally.
- Hrudroga and Shotha in lower limb- Punarnava given with katuki,Shunti and Kiratatikta.
- Kaphayukta kasa- Punarnava with Shunti and Vaca.
- Shotha and Kupacana-Saka of Punarnava is used.
- Abhishyandi and other Netra roga vikaras-Punarnava grained with madhu and applied on the part and given internally also.
- Vrschidamsa,Sarpadamsa,Musikavisha-Used internally and externally.
- Rasayana-Root used.
- Ghrita coated with decoction and paste of Punarnava alleviates oedema. [CD.39.32]
- Decoction of Punarnava and varuna alleviates internal abscess.[SG 2/2-125]
- Oedema during progency- Decoction of Punarnava, Devadaru and musta mixed with honey should be taken.[K.S.P.96]
- Paste of Sati and Shunti taken with decoction of Punarnava for a week alleviates [B.D.Ci.26.42]
- Pain in Vagina is relieved by putting juice of Punarnava in to Vagina. [G.N.6/6-15]
- Milk boiled with Vrsciva, Bilva and Punarnava along withwater reduced to milk only alleviates all type of fever. [SS.U.39/202]
- Root of Punarnava lubricates with oil is introduced in to Vagina, expels the foetus.[GN.6/4/38]
- Decoction of Punarnava induces sleep.[H.S.3/15-5]
- Guggulu taken with decoction of Punarnava ,Devadaru and Shunthi or simply urine or decoction of Dashamula alleviates oedema.[VM.39/8]
- Punarnava removes Itching, Discharge, Colonal opacity, defects of vision and night blindness taken with milk, honey, ghee, oil, sour gruel respectively.[B.P.Ci.63/210]
Substitutes and adulterants
The drug is commonly available. Adulteration is seldom noticed.
Roots of Boerhavia repend wild are sometime used as substitute. These are comparatively thick and stout with a reddish brown surface and no striations.
- The haematinic effect of the drug is reported through a clinical study.[Apparao etal 1967]
- A significant diuretic activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts and the active principle was found in saline loaded albino rats(Haravey,1966)
- The total alcoholic extract showed a cardiotonic effect in perfused frog heart preparation and anaesthetized dog heart sites(Singh and Udupa,1972c)
- The fibrinolytic activity of Boerhavia diffusa is reported(Srivasva et al,1980)
Punarnavoside at eral dose of 25 mg/kg for 7 days stopped IUCD-associated bleeding episodesin rheusus monkey(Ind,J.Chem,1989,28B,163)
- Liviodendrin exhibited significant Ca++ channel antagonistic effect in frog heart single cell(Chem.Pham,Bult,1991,39,1551)
- Boerhavia diffusa produced 50% inhibitionof lipid peroxidationat a concentration of 2.28 mg/ml and 1.84mg/ml in Fe++ ascorbate system. Through this the anti oxidant property of B.diffusais established.( Joyand Kuttan,1995)
- diffusa is found to be a source of calcium channel blocker.(Aftab.et.al.1996)
- Seeds showed inhibitory activity against pseudo, Cichorii, Bacillus subtilis, salm, typhimurium and Esch coli(Sushil kumar etal1997)
- The aqueous extract of roots(2ml/kg) collected in summer(1-3cm diameter) exhibited marked hepatoprotective activity.(Rawat,et,al,1997)
- Ethanolic extract of B.diffusa showed alpha amylase activity in vitro.(Prashanth,et,al,2001)