Randia Spinoza – Ayurvedic Herb
In the Vedic literature the thorns of Madana are mentioned and in case of vegetable poison Madanaphala is given to induce vomiting.
Charaka quoted it as the best emetic drug and about 133 yogas described with it in the Kalpa sthana . He also emphasized its role as antidote to many poison. It is important to note that Madanaphala is enumerated under Vamana Dravya’s but not under Vamanopaka group. However it’s found in the Asthapanapaka & Anuvasanopaka group. The author is of the view that in the context of Vamana Dravya Madana is pricked up as analogue while in Ashthapana & Anuvasana Dravya its considered as a prodrug. This will be a topic which needs scientific study in the future.
Susrutha mentioned that vomiting may be induced even by giving the flower of Madana along with honey and rock salt. Chunekarji quoted Pindara of Bhavamisra as Randia aliginosa.
SYNONYMS & INTERPRETATIONS
- Karahataka– That which induces the thorn
- Kapha vardhana– It removes kapha dosha after it gets aggravated.
- Galana – Liquification, the thick kapha gets liquefied.
- Golaphala– Fruit is globose in shape.
- Chardana– Vomiting
- Ghandala– Globous shape of fruit.
- Gharaphala– The ripe fruit has mild ridges.
- Pindithaka– Fruit is spherical, round or bicular in shape.
- Marupaka- It grows abundantly. They are visha it is taken excess its poison.
- Ratha– the plant grow very close to each other .
- Vamana– Inducing vomiting
- Vishapushpaka– When taken in excess quantity act as visha.
- Shalya– Action is compared with fast shalya.
- Shwasana– It were shwasa Roga.
Madanaphala botanical name is Randia Spinosa. Which belongs to rubiaceae family.
Catunasegan spinosa, Trivengadum veromphis spinosa, Randia Dumetorum these are other botanical names.
But randia spinosa is the used botanical name. Other where only used in olden times.
English : Emetic Nut
Hindi : Mainaphala
Kannada : Karekay
Malayalam : Kara
Telungu : Mranga kaya
Bengali : Mayanaphal
Marathi : Golaphal
Gujarathi : Mindhala
Tamil : Marukkalam
Santhal : Loto
Arabic : Jijul Kai.
It contains saponin valeric acid resin, wax, and some coloring matter. Besides saponin the fruit contain a new triterpene & acid resin 7 trace of pale essential oil. The presence of pectin mucilage & taetaric acid is reported sapomine is the main acture principle in the fruit with trierpine tanine. The seed contain oil, protein mucilage resin & an alkaloid but is without saponine.
Large shrub with strong spines. 1 – 3 cm long branch.
Leaves : 1 -2 inch long obovate, obtuse, wrinkled shining above pubescent .
Fruit: Like a small crabapple yellow colour 1-1.5 inch long pulp.
Seed: Many, flat, embedded in pulp.
Calyx: Companulate, strigose, 0.2 – 0.3 inch long.
Corolla: Lobes spreading , 0.5 – 0.75 inch long .
Androecium : 5 stamen, epipetalous with shout filament.
Gynecium: Bicaepillacy syncaepous infeior bilocular
Colour : Flowers are white yellow in colour.
Size : 1.3 -3.2 cm long branches horizontal and very short leaves are 1-2 inch long.
PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA
Rasa : Madhura Thiktha
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Madhura
Doshagnatha : Kapha vathahara, kaphahara, chardhana.
Prabhava : Vamana
Karma : Vamaka, vathanulomana , Rakthashodhaka, Kaphanissaraka, Lekhana, Medohara, Vranaropana, arthavajanana , vishagna, Nadishmaka, vedhanasthapana.
Kaphapradhana Vikaras, Jwara, Gulma, Prathishaya, Vibhandha, krimi, kushta, medoraga, visha Pravahika, Udhavartha, udhararoga , Aanaha, gulma, shoola.
PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES & ACTION
The extracts exhibit insectidal & insect repellent properties. They would possibly be used as synergists in insecticidal preparation. Fruits are used in colour intensifier and they are said to produce a yellow pulp. The ethanolic extract of pulp showed a stimulant activity on isolated guinea pig uterus. The fruits are eaten after roasting a cooking.
The fruits are reported to be mixed with stored grain to preserve it from attack of insect and in this way its insecticidal effect is also utilized . The unripe fruit are also used as soap in various areas.
For adhoka raktha pitta Beeja choorna boiled in Yavagu .
Its an emetic agent.
Madanaphala irritates the stomach causes vomiting due to its Thiktha Katu Rasa, Ushna Thukshna attributes vyavayi , vikasi, Laghu Guna, Best Vamaka since it does not cause any side effect during emesis. 3-4 g of pulp soaked in 25 ml of warm water for an hour be triturated rinsed through cloth & should be administered on empty stomach with honey saindhava to cause emesis.
RECENT RESEARCH ADVANCES
In anaesthetized dogs a drug consisting of R.dumatorum in doses of 2,4,8 mg/kg produced hypotension respiratory depression . It produced positive inotropic chrontropic effects on perused frog heart preparation. In isolated rabbit heat it increase pentobaebitone induced hypnosis in mice significantly.
Crude saponin fraction showed hemolytic molluscicidal immunostimulating activities.
Powder – 3 – 6 gm (Emesis)
Powder – 1- 2 gm (Therapeuties)
- Madhanaphaladhi vati
- Madhanadi Choorna