Bilwa

Aegle marmelos corr – Ayurvedic Herb

 

Bilwa

 

LITERARY REVIEW

 

Bilwa is extensievely  described and used in vedic literature. Bilwa mani dharana is considered as dhuswapna nashana, raksogna, rasayana, pranjastapana, vishagna etc. Its cosmetic properties were also documented in ancient text.

Bilwa is considered to be the best sangrahika and deepaniya  drug  being vata kaphahara.Bilwa patra is however vatahara only. sushrutha quoted bilwa as rasayana.

Bilwa is also called shiva dhruma is held sacred by hindus the leaves being offered in prayers to siva and parvati.

As chorpara aptly puts it. No drug has been longer better known more appreciated by the inhabitants of india than beal fruit.

 

SYNONYMS & ITS INTERPRETATION

Bilwa                 :         Useful in bowel disease particularly dysentery and diarrhea

Kantaki              :         A thorny tree

Gandha garbha  :         Pulp with resinous odour

Malura               :         Useful in bowel disease

Shalatu              :         Fruits ripen in year

Shantilya           :         It relieves from disease and also from troubles

Shilusha             :         Tree growing even in hilly areas

Shriphala           :         The fruits are good to look at

Sadhaphala        :         The fruits are hanging in tree always

Puthimarutha     :         Useful as carminative and relives the bad smell

Vathasara          :         act as carminative and relives flatulence from abdomen

Gandha patra     :         The leaves having aroma

 

DIFFERENT VARIETIES

The author had seen another variety of bilwa known as Ek patti bilwa(single leaf beal) at the botanical garden of Annapurna bioved Hyderabad situated at thurkapalli village Andhra pradhesh. It is belived to be an eco-type or variety of Aegle marmelos.

 

CLASSICAL CATEGORIZATION

Caraka         :        Sothahara, Arsogna, Asthapanopaga

Susrutha       :        Varunadi, Ambashtathi, Brahat panchamula

Vagbhatta    :        Varunadi, Ambashtathi

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

Hindi                  :                Bel,Bela

Telugu                :                Maredu

Kannada            :                Bilva, Bilpatrae

Malayalam         :                Koovalam

Tamil                 :                Vilvam

English               :                Bael or Bengal quince

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 

Roots             :         Xanthotoxin, umbeliferone, marmesin, marmin, skimming etc

Heart wood    :         Furoqinoline, marmesin, sitosterol etc

Leaves            :         Essential oil containing, bhellandrene, rutin, marmesinin, aegelin, aegelenine

Ripe fruits      :         Xanthotoxol, marmesinin, sikmmin etc

Unripe fruits  :         Marmeline, aegeline, imperatorin, allomieperatorin and xanthotoxol

 

RESEARCH STUDIES

 

Cus activity                  :   Aques and alchaholic extract of leaves caused and increase in amplitude and force of contraction of frogs heart similar to those shown by digoxin. Both the extracts stimulated frog heart as seen from ecg.

Antidiabetic property : The alchoholic extracts of  root  and fruts showed hypoglycemic  activity in albino rats.

Anthelminitic activity   : Marmelosin  showed anthhelminitic activity against anlaylostomiasis

Antidiarrheal activity :   Effect of beal fruit in  a moebiasis is reported (vernaB.H.U)

  • Bilwa powder in atisara (tupe)
  • Bilwa powder inpravahika(chandak nashik)

 

PROPERTIES

Rasa             :            kasaya, Tikta

Guna            :            Laghu, Ruksa

Virya            :            Usna

Vipaka         :            Katu

 

INDICATION

 

  • Atisara
  • Grahani
  • Prameha
  • Sotha
  • Agni Mandhya

 

SUBSTITUTES AND ADULTERANTS

 

Mula       :      Basal portion of stout lateral roots varying from 30-120 cm in length and 15-30 cm in thickness are more commonly available in drug market. The thinner roots are however  preferred  as in proportion to their weight  they contain a greater quantity of the bark which is indicated as official part in the text.

Phala      :      Peeled pieces of fruits of feronia lemonica(L)swingle  are occasionally found as adulterant. These are distinguished by the absence of cells. The seeds being directly in the pulp in an irregular fashion.

 

FOLKLORE USES

 

  • Leaves pasted with jiggery  and given for curing hotness in abdomen  in singhani area of hazaribhag
  • Fruits pulp is said to aromatic cooling laxative and digestive
  • Leaf juice given  along with honey in cold and cough in mahilong, ranchi

 

PARTS USED

 

  • Fruit
  • Leaves
  • Root

 

KARMA

 

Mula       :    Mutrala, Sothagna, Sulaprasamana, Cardinigrahana

Phala          :    Vidahi, Vishtambi, Anulomana, Dipana, Pacana, Grahi, Pittrakrt, Vatakaphahara.

 

FORMULATIONS

  • Manasa mitra vataka
  • Amrtarishta
  • Dantyadyarista
  • Agasthya hareethaki rasayana
  • Dasdamula kwatha curna
  • Brahat gagadhara curna
  • Bilvadi ghrta
  • Bilvadi curna
  • Vatskathikwatha
  • Dhanya panchaka kwatha
  • Maha narayana taila
  • Bilva taila
  • Bilvadi lehya

MATRA OR DOSAGE

  • Decoction    :          50-100ml
  • Powder        :          3-5gm
  • Leaf juice     :          10-20ml

 

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  • Pittatisara: Fruit pulp of bilwa and madhuka are mixed with sugar and honey and administrated with rice water(su.sut.40)
  • Grahani: Paste of un ripen fruit of bilva is given with sunti or guda while the patient is on butter milk as diet(v.m)
  • Kamala: Leaf juice of bilwa is given along with trikatu(c.s.ci16)
  • In pravahika: Bilwa majja is given with dadhi
  • In madhumeha: Patra swarasa is given to reduce the blood
  • In amavata: Unripened fruit pulp powder is given with guda
  • It is useful in vataroga hrdroga and unmade
  • In sangrahani in the beginning stage the ripened fruit is given with sarkara

 

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