2 varieties of sariva are known from Charakas time. He enumerated Ananth in kashay skandha and gopavalli in madhur skandha.
- Nighantus explain 2 varieties: Black and White
- Dhanvanthari niganttu- Black as Krishna mool.
Sodala nighantu- white variety as uthpal saariva Bhaavmishra described that Krishna saariva is characterized by the leaves which are similar to that of jambu and possess great aroma.
He also denoted White as gopa and Black as Gopavalli.
Dalhana commented that Saariva and utpala Saariva are names of same plant.
- Swetha saariva- hemidesmus Indicus
- Krishna saariva- Ichnocarpus frutescens
Synonyms and Nirukti
- Saariva- Extensively Spreading twiner. (Bhavprakash)
- Ananth- Extensively Spreading Creeper (Amar Kosh)
- Utphal Saariva- aroma is similar to lotus (Amar Kosh)
- Karpurilathika- Odour of Karpur (Priya Nighantu)
- Gopakanya- grows hidden like that of virgin (Bhavprakash)
- Gopavadhu- grows hidden like that of virgin under other plants(Bhavprakash)
- Gopi-Creeper grows under shades of other plants (Bhavprakash)
- Chandan Saariva- Plant smells like that of sandalwood.(Abhidhan Manjari)
- Prathanika- Creeper that grows extensively (Dhanvanthari Nighantu)
- Phanijihvika- Leaves are like serpant tongue (Astang Nidhan)
- Bhadravallika- Strong Creeper (Paryaya ratna Maala)
- Sugandhi Mool- Aromatic roots (Astang Nidhan)
( ref : Pharmacognosy of indigenous drugs)
- English- Indian sarsaparilla.
- Hindi and Bengali- Ananth Mool
- Kannada- Sogade, Logadaheru
- Malayalam- Narunint
- Tamil- Nannari
- Telugu- sugandhiphala
- Marathi- upalsari
- Gujarati- Upalsari
- Persian- Aushbabe- hindi
- Sinhalese- Irimusu
- Oriya- Dilsukri
There are two kinds of saariva i.e. Shwetha and Krishna Saariva.
Shwetha saariva is botanically known as Hemidesmus indicus. Presently two source plants of Krishna Saariva are botanically identified as Cryptolepis buchananiana and ichnocarpus frutescens belonging to family Asclepiadaceae and Apocynaceae respectively.
Cryptolepis buchnani- A climbing or turning glabrous shrub. Leaves 7.575*2.5-7.5 cm, coriaceous, shining above sometimes obovate, apiculate or acuminate, base acute.
Ichnocarpus frutescens – woody climber or twining wire, large evergreen latticiferous, woody creeper with rusty red appearance. Plant occurs almost throughout India.
Air dried roots yield essentials oil 0.225%, containing p-methoxy salicylic aldehyde as the major component. The aroma of the drug is attributed to this aldehyde. Other constituents present in the roots: B- sitosterol, A and B- amyrins (both free and as esters), lupeol, tetracyclic, triterpene alcohols, small amount of resin acids, fatty acids, tannins, saponins, a glycoside and a ketone.
- Rasa- Madhura, tiktha
- Guna- Guru, Snigdha
- Veerya- sheeta
- Vipaaka- Madhura
- Karma- tridoshahara, graahi
- Indications- Jwara, kandu, prameha, kaasa, Shwaasa, pradara, Aruchi, agnimaandya, atisaara.
- Rakta prasadana
- Rakta shodhaka
- Daaha prashamana- shothahara
- Rochana- dipana, pachana, anulomana
- Sthanya shodhaka- garbhasthapana
- Mutrajanana- mutravirajaniya
- Rakta Dusthijanya vikara
- Upadamsha- Phiranga
- Jirna- Amavata
- Slipada- gandamala
- Aruchi- Agnimaandhya
- Pravaahika- grahani
- Kaasa- swasa
- Sthanya vikara- stanya ksaya
- Sthanya- durgandhi
- Mutra krechra- paithika prameha
- Kushta- visarpa- visphota
- Pandu sarvanga shotha
- Swaras- 50-100ml
Important formulations (yoga)
- pinda thaila
- Mahathikthaka grutha
- Pipalyadi grutha
- Amrutha grutha
- Saarivaadi kwatha
- Saarivaadi vati
- Vrana- saariva root is claimed to be useful for cleaning all types of wounds. (V.M)
- Vishamjwara- Decoction of patola, saariva, musta, patha, katuki is useful. (C.S. G-3)
- Kustha- Brihati, Usira, Patola, Saariva and Katuki is to be given for external and internal use.
- Lootha Visha- Nimba, Saariva and Honey given internally.
- Shwaasa and kaasa- Saariva Kwaath with honey.
- In Daha, Rakth pittha, Thrushna, Jwara – Decoction of saarivadi gana i.e. saariva, usheera, pushkaramula, madhuka etc.
- Pithaja Jwara- Kwaath of Saariva and kamalakanda after cooling.
Actions and uses
- Vaathashaman being madhura, snigdha and guru
- Pithshaman being madhur, tikth and sheetha
- Kapha shamana being slightly tiktha but does not aggrevate kapha inspite of being madhura, snigdha and guru.
- The aqueous extract caused a slight increase in the urinary flow in rats. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts also led to a rise in the BP and splenic contraction in dog and also contraction of Guinea pig ileum. An increase in the cardiac rate in rabbit was noticed with the aqueous extract.
- Saponin was found to have anti-inflammatory activity.
- The ethyl acetate extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and sub-acute and methods of inflammation.
- The anti viral activity may be due to the presence of interferon- like factors in the plant.
- Root is anti-leprotic, plaque formation suppressant and nematocidal.