Commiphora mukul Eng – Ayurvedic Herb
SYNONYMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION
Guggulu : Safe guards from diseases or removes a number of Ailments.
Kumbhollukhalakam : Exudes a gum resin coming out of cavities.
Devadhupa : Used as an incense in god’s worship.
Palankasha : Relieves particularly Obesity.
Puraha : The resin is the best medicine.
Mahishaksha : Reddish black in color like the eyes of buffalo.
Kalaniryasa : The Resin is reddish black.
Durga : A plant growing in Arid zone.
Rakshoha : The fumigation of the resin acts as an antiseptic and gives a protection.
Marudeshya : A plant growing in Arid zone.
Kananiryasa : The resin will be in the form of particles.
English : Gum-gugul, Indian Bedellium Salai tree.
Hindi : Gugal , Guggul.
Tamil : Kungilyam , Mahishakshi guggula.
Malayalam : Gulgulu , Guggulu.
Kannada : Mahishakshi Guggulu, ,Guggulu gida, Guggulu
Telugu : Mahishakshi Guggulu, Guggipanna
1) Mahishakshi : Reddish black in color ,useful in treating Elephants.
2) Mahaneela : Blue in Color.
3) Kumuda : Color of Lotus,Useful in treating Horses.
4) Padma : Color of Padma flower, useful in treating Horses.
5) Hiranya : Golden Mahishaksha , Hiranya or Kanaka guggulu are preffered for medicinal preparations Color , for treating Human beings.
There are two types of Guggulu available
a) Naveena Guggulu
b) Purana Guggulu
Botanically there is another variety of Guggulu Commiphora Roxburghii which grows in Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradhesh. This tree is smaller and leaves are bigger and thinner .Its exudate is also used as Guggulu.
For human use two varieties of Guggulu are sold commercially.
1) Kana Guggulu :- It is found in Marwar , greenish ,yellow soft and granular.
2) Bhaisa(Mhash) :-It is found in Sindh & Kutch.It is greenish , yellow.
Gum –Resin :-The resin is reddish –black in color like the eyes of Buffalo.
[Gum Resin : Thick , Scented , multi –colored burnt on fire , liquefies in sunlight ,when dissolved in water it turns milky white.]
COLLECTION OF PARTS
Period : December to February
Plants of 7 years of age group are suitable for tapping the gum resin.
The incision of 1-2cmdeep is made on the main stem and branches.
The yellow fragrant liquid start oozing out just after incision
The liquid solidifies in the due course of time .The same is collected after a one or two days.
Rasa :- katu , tiktha
Guna :- Laghu ,Rooksha ,Vishada ,Sookshma ,Sara[old],Pichila[new]
Veerya :- Ushna
Vipaka :- Katu.
GANA AND VARGA
Charaka :- Sanjnasthapana
Susrutha :- Eladi
Vagbhatta :- Eladi
Kaiadeva nigandu :- Aushadhi varga
Bhavaprakasha nighandu :- Karpooradhi varga
Raja nighandu :- Chandanadhi varga.
Shad dharana yoga
Pancha tiktha guggulu ghritham
Aarogya vardhini rasa
Guggulu thiktha kashaya
Udara :- Guggulu and Shilajathu can be used(C.S.CI 13).
Koustakashirsha Vata :- Guggulu can be used with Triphala decoction.(V.M &V.S).
Urustambha :- Guggulu can be taken with Gomutra.(V.M).
Aamavata :- Haritaki , Guggulu , Shilajathu may be given with Urine .(A.H.U.Ci 21).
Shotha :- Guggulu and Gomutra internally.
Karna dourgandhya :- Guggulu dhupana.
Gridhrasi :- Shasna with Guggulu Internally.
Vidrathi :- Guggulu with Gomutra internally.
Amlapitta :- Guduchi Swarasa with Guggulu.
Bhagandara :- Guggulu with Triphala kashaya internally.
It is mainly useful in Vata vyadhi like Sandhi vata and Upadamsh. In Jeerna Aamavata , Gridhrasi etc when given Shilajathu Guggulu is having better action.
Guggulu is useful in Jeerna kasa , Pooyameha , Jeerna vrikka shotha , Mutra pintashotha ,Garbhasahaya Shotha , Kastarthava and Rakta pradara.In Shotha Gugguku is given with Gomutra .Guggulu is useful in Galaganda , Twakvikara , Kandu , Arsa , Prameha , Plihavridhi , Kusta , Granthi , Apachi etc. It is used as Rakshogna , Butavatahara , Janthugna , Guggulu is useful in Garbhasahaya disease .In Anarthava it is given with Eluva & Kasisa.Incase of Vandyatwa due to Swedapradara .Guggulu with Rasanjana when given gives good result.
2 – 4 Grams of drug.
12 – 24 grains
Essential oil , Gum resin , Steroids ,Tannins , Alkaloids –Sennoside , Ascorbic acid sennoside ,Bioflavanoids , Vitamin-c , Mucilage , Essential oil – Camphene , Eugenol , Gingerols , Alkaloids –Piperine , Piperiongumine steroids – Guggulsterones that are lipid soluble .Oleoresin – Z-guggulsterone,E-guggulsterone,Gum-Guggullignans |&|| Guggulu tetrols , Mukulol allylcembrol c-27 guggulsterols.
Ghee is the Anupana.
IDENTIFICATION TEST FOR PURITY
Pure guggulu is snigdha, soft, sticky with sweet, small bitter taste, yellowish tinge, soluble in water, nor contaminated with mud or sand. Any variety other than these qualities should be considered as impure potency lasts for 20 years.
INTERNAL USES OF GUGGULU
1) Nervous system :- Vatasamaka , analgesics nervine tonic ,So Guggulu is useful in Neuralgia , Rheumatoid Arthritis ,Sciatica , Facial paralysis , Hemiplegia and Gout etc .
It is well known and popular medicine for Vatha Disorders.
Thriphala + Guggulu is a popular medicine given internally for wounds.
2) Digestive system :- It si an Appetizer by pungent and bitterness , Laxative by Snigdadtha ,Picchila ,Sara and Teekshna , Liver Stimulant, Anti heamorrhoidal and Anti-helmenthic by Bitter and Ushna Guna.Hence Guggulu is useful in loss of Appetite , Constipation , Liver disease , Plies and worms in Stomatitis Guggulu kept in the mouth helps I wound healing.
3) Circulatory system :- It is a Cardiac Tonic , it increases Heamoglobin and leucocyte count and enhances blood quality. It helps in Oedema lymphadenitis, Granular enlargements and filarial when given for a longer period.
4) Respiratory system :- Expectorant being Snigdha & Picchila, It is a deodorant , anti –helminthic , useful in chronic cough and chronic asthma .Preparation of Guggulu + Pippali + Honey +Ghee is useful in Kapha disorders.
5) Urinary system :- Lithotryptic due to Teekshna & Diuretic properties.Also useful in Dysuria and Gonorrhoea.
6) Reproductive system :- Guggulu is Ushna ,Teekshna ,Increases Sexual power and acts an Emmenagogue.It is also useful in Oligospermia , Impotency , Dysmenorrhoea,Leucorrhoea and other Gynaecological diseases due to Snigda and Pichila properties .It acts an Aphrodiasciac and as an Anti – infertility drug.
EXTERNAL USES OF GUGGULU
- Anti inflammatory
- Cleaning of wound and healing due to anti bacterial action.
- Paste of guggulu is locally applied in Rhumatoid arthritis.
- Cervical lymphadenities, skin diseases, piles etc
- It reduces foul smell and swelling of wound. It’s vapors is useful as deodorant in the house.
Gargling is useful in Pyorrhoea and dental disorders.
1) Anti – inflammatory & anti –arthritic activity
Oleoresin was found to be highly potent anti-inflammatory agent , as compared to hydro cortisone and butazoladin against Brownlee’s formaldehyde – induces arthritis in albino rats.
The Oleoresin fraction possessed significant anti –arthritic and anti –inflammatory activities .The minimum effective dose being 12.5mg /100g body weight.
The crude aqueous extract of aleogum –resinwas found to suppress acute rat – paw oedema induced by Carrageenin. In adjuvant arthritis, the extract suppressed the secondary lesions and is compared to the more effective then betamethasone.
2) Anti-inflammatory activity
Oleoresin of gum Guggulu is found to cause also reduction in the weight of the uterus .Ovaries and Cervix with a concomitant increase in their glycogen and sialic acsid levels , there by showing that it might be useful as an anti-fertility agent.
3) Anti-Atherosclerotic activity
Effect of gum – guggulu was observed on serum cholesterol, fibrinolytic activity and platelete adhesive index in healthy individuals (group 1) and in patients of CAD (group 2) for a period of 30days .Serum fibrinolytic activity improved by 22% and 19% at the end of 24 hrs .Whereas after 30days it was 40% and 30% group one and two respectively .Serum cholesterol did not decrease significantly (Bordia 1979).
4) Anti – obesity activity
Crude guggulu was found to reduce the body weight of hydrogenated ground =-nut oil –treated rabbits.
On average there is 2kg reduction in one month in both the groups.
5) Hypolipedmic/hypocholestrolaemic activity
Crude guggulu was reported to possess highly encouraging hypolipaemic activity in rabbits.
Anion exchange property defected by means of chloride retention and bile acid sequestrating activity in the oleoresin fraction hypocholestrolaemic activity.
The alcohol extract reduced effectively the serum betalipoprotein ratio.
The steroidal compound isolated from fraction A of PE extract reduced the lipid content (total lipid, cholesterol, TG and phospholipids) of both hepatic and aortic tissues .The response was doses-dependent and the maximum effect was noted at 10mg/kg.
Fraction A of PE extract effectively lowered serum lipids, cholesterol, phosphor –lipids and triglycerides in monkey’s fed with cholesterol diet.
SUBSTITUTES & ADULTERANTS
Oleo-gum resin obtained from Boswellia Serraka Roxb.(Salai Guggulu)is the major adulterant .It is distinguished by its yellowish green , golden or milky tears, seldom amalgamated anto lump and characteristic turpentine , like odour .
Gum-leo-resin of Commiphora myrrha(Nees)Engl,imported from Africa and constituting the drug Hirabole or Bole commerce is sometimes mixed with Guggulu. Similarly Gum-leo resin obtained from Commiphora Roxburghii (Arn)Engl.Occuring in Central and eastern India is sold by the name of Guggulu.The former is distinguished by large tears of yellowish brown color exposing on fracture , a brown surface having the white markings. While the later has a bluish tinge and a feeble balsamic Odour.