INTRODUCTION

 

Amla is one of the most celebrate herb in the Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. Amla’s traditional uses include as a laxative,eye wash,appetite stimulant,restorative tonic and to treat anorexia and jaundice.

Amla is becoming increasingly well known to its unusually high level of vitamine C which is resistant to storage and heat damage due to cooking.

It is found natively in India.Indian gooseberry has been used as a valuable ingredient of various medicine in India and abroad.Amlaki is one of the most common and important herb in Ayurvedic medicin

 

LITRARY VIEW

 

Reference of amalaki is found in Brahatrayi’s.Accordingly to         Caraka it comes under kasahara, jvarahara, kushtagna, vayasthapa,virechanopaka.Susrutha mensioned under Parushakadi and Triphaladi ganas.

It is also mentioned in Bhavaprakasha,kaiyyadeva,and Dhanvanthari nigantu,nigantu karas mensioned Amalaki in many synonyms which one used by most of the nigantu karas are,Amrutha phala,Tishyaphala,shiva,Shreephala,Dhatri phala etc.

 

VARIETIES

 

Wild and cultivated varieties  are VANYA and GRAMYA respectively. Wild fruits are small,hard,ostonny, while cultivated variety  are bigger,fleshy and smooth.Various varieties from locality,production and quality(also purpose of use ) point of view.

There are different cultivated varieties of Embilica officianalis available

  • Four improved varieties are:-
  1. Krishna
  2. Amrith
  3. Neelam
  4. Kanjan

These varieties are developed by Narendradev university of agri and tech.Gaizabad U.P.

SYNONYMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATIONS

 

  • Amrut:Fruit intake help to maintain health
  • Amruthaphala:A best fruit like amrutha/a good rasayana dravya
  • Vayastha:That improves logevity
  • Tishyaphala:A fruit appears in pushya masa
  • Vrishya:That which improves virility/vitality
  • Jatiphala rasa:The fruit juice is useful like that of jatiphala
  • Shivam:Auspicious and beneficial all way like of shiva
  • Sreephala: Thefruit when completely ripen looks beautiful.
  • Tishyaphala:Promotes dhatus in the body/protect from all diseases like a mother.
  • Vaya:stha:Maintain youthfulness in person
  • Aamla:Purifying the body by removing the mala
  • Vrutaphala:The fruits are round in shape
  • Kolam:The weight of the each of the ripend fruit is about one kola
  • Korangaka:Obtained from koranga desha
  • Sheetaphalam:It is a sheeta virya dravya
  • Shadarasa:Sodala nigantu mensions that amalaki has six rasas
  • Bahuphali:Plant yield abundant of fruits
  • Amlika:Fruit,leaves are sour in taste
  • Karshaphala:well grown fruit weighs one karsha
  • Aamraphala:Fruit is sour in taste

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

English              :            Indian goose berry

Hindi                 :            Aamla

Telugu               :            Visiri kaya

Tamil                 :            Nellikai

Kannada            :            Nelli

Bengali              :            Amla

Gujarathi           :            Anvla

Marathi             :            Anvala

Pharasi              :            Amlaj,Amal

Arabic                :            Ambliy

Assam               :            Amlaki

Burma               :            Hziphya

Chinese             :            An mo le

Nepal                :            Amla

Portuguese       :            Mirobalan embilico

Punjab               :            Ambal

Tulu                   :            Nelli

Urdu                  :            Anwala

 

PARTS USED

 

  • Phala(fruit)
  • Patra(leaf)
  • Twacha(bark)

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

Root contain:

Ellagic acid,lupeol,Oleanolic aldehyde

Bark contain:

Luecodel phinidin,pro cyanidin,tannin

Fruit contain:

Vitamin C,phyllemblin,linolic  acid,indole,acetic acid and ayxubsin,trigaloyl glucose,terchebin,corilagin,ellagic acid,phyllamblic acid and salts

Fruits is rich source of  vitamin C,seeds contain fixed oil,phosphatides and an essential oil.

Fruit,leaveand bark are rich in tannin,fruit contain Gallic acid,tannic acid,resinous matters,glucose,albumin,cellulose and minerals specially Ca other than good content of vitamin C and other substance.

 

PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATA

 

Rasa              :        Pancha rasa(alavana)

Amla(pradhana rara)

Guna             :        Lagu,ruksa,seeta

Virya             :        Madhura

Dosha karma:        Tridosha hara,pitta shamaka

KARMA

 

  • Rajanigantu

Rasayana

Vayasthapana

Sarva doshahara

Sothahara

Sramahara

  • kaiyyadeva nigantu

Sarva doshahara

Indriya balya

Kaphagna

Trishnahara

Caksusya

Sukrahara

Chardigna

Santaniya

Svethahara

Medohara

Keshya

  • Bhavaprakasha

Raktasthambaka

Rakta prasadaka

Vrisya

Mutrala

Daha prashana

Srama hara

 

 

PRAYOGA

CHAKRADHATTA Mastishka Dhourbalya
Naadi Dhoubalya
Dristimandya
Kasa
Shoola
KAYYADEVA NIGHANTU Indriya Dhourbalya
Trisna
Netra vikara
Shukra dosha
Chardhi
Medo roga
Keshavikara
VAGBHATTA Prameha
Trsna
Dhourbalya
Svasa
Hridroga
Jvara
Kusta
Kandu


 

BHAVAPRAKASA Rakta Vikara
Rakta Prasadaka
Mutra Vikara
Daha
Srama
RAJA NIGHANTU Shodha
Srama
Gulma
Raktapita
Shiroroga
CHARAKA Raktapita
Vamana
Atisara
Dhourbalya
Yakshma
Kshaya
Svasa
Kasa


 

 

 

Sl. No Formulations Indications
1. Dhatyaadi Ghrita Samaroga, Pipasa, Mutragata, Aruci, Mutra Krichra
2. Triphaladi Kwatha Sukrameha
3. Phalaghritam Yonimula, Pindita, Calita, Pittayoni, Sukradosha, Garbhadosha, Balagrahani
4. Amalakyadi Kwatha Srama, Tarpana, Raktapitta, Daha, Soola, Mutra Krichra.
5. Dhatri Leha Vishtambha, Daha, Parinama sula, Kamala, Pandu
6. Triphala Leham Sula
7. Chyavanaprashavaleha Kasa, Svasa, Shataksheena, Svarabheda, Kshaya, Hridroga, Rasayana
8. Amalakyadi Avaleha Halimaka, Kamala, Panduroga
9. Amalakyadi Curna Jwara, Dipana, Pachana, Agnimandya
10. Dhatrarishta Pandu, Kamala, Hridroga, Vatarakta, Vishama jwara, Kasa, Hikka, Aruci, Svasa, Palitya, Galaroga, Rajayakshma, Urakshatha etc.
11. Triphala Curna Akshiroga, Twakroga, Vishama Jwara, Kleda, Prameha, Raktavikara etc


 

 

PHARMACO-THERAPEUTIC PROPERTY AND ACTION

 

1.Jvara

  1. The fruit of amalaka fruit is dried with ghee alleviates jvara(c.chi 8/230).
  2. The patient of fever in case of loss of sweat and sleep accompanied by excess thirst,shoud taken liquid gruel processed with sundi & amalaka rubbed with sugar and fried with ghee,it alleviates jvara(c.chi 2/187).

2.Loss of appetite.

  1. The amalaka fruit are roasted on charcoal fire added with ghee,jiraka and salt and fumigated with hingu.They stimulate appetite.

3.Piles

  1. Phalarishta
  2. Kan akarishta
  3. Kashaya made of Kashmarya & amalaka and taken with supernatend fatty layer  of curd controls Bleeding piles.

(c.chi 16/13)

  1. A regimen of butter milk with amalaka,guduchi etc is prescribed in piles(ss.u 54/13)

4.Worms

The juice of amalaka or decotion of Bibhithaka/Harithaki mixed with honey is useful as anupana   (ss.u.54/31).

 

5.Anaemia

  1. The juice of amalaka and sugarcane in the form of mantha is beneficial in case of anaemia(ss.u.44/8)
  2. One should take the powder of amalaki with honey(ss.u.44/27)

6.Jaundice

  1. Dhatryavaleha(c.chi.16/100-01)
  2. Dhathyarishta(c.chi.16-111-13)
  3. The juice of grape and Amalaka is useful as a drink and food in case of jaundice (c.chi 16/114)

7.Intrinsic hemorrhage

  1. Amalaki fruit are mixed with plenty of honey and sugar should be used as a purgative the juice is particularly in Rakta pitta(c.chi4/57-8)
  2. Fine paste of the amalaki fried with ghee is applied on head,it cures epitaxis instantaneously (v.m.9/30)

8.Hoarsness of voice

  1. In case of hoarsness of voice one can take Amalaka fruit with milk(R.m.10/3)

9.Cough

  1. Juice of amalaka fruit cooked and added with ghee can be taken in cough(ss.u32/36)

 

 

10.Hicough

  1. The juice of amalaka and kapitha mixed with pippali powder and honey check hiccough(c.chi.17/135).

11.Heart diseases

a)In Agasthyavaleha,Chyavanaprashavaleha and Brahma rasayana amalaki is used.

12.Vomitting

  1. In vomiting cold soup of green gram mixed with amalaka juice is taken(A.s.chi.8/15)
  2. Amalaka fruit,draksha and sharkara,40g should be pounded and mixed with honey 40g and water 160 ml.All this should be strained by a cloth and used.(B.S.cardhi 37)

13.Thirst

  1. In abmormal thirst of mouth,gargle should be used of sour and powder of amalaka(ss.u.48/17).

14.Udavartha(due to urinary obstruction)

In upward movment of vayu,juice of amalaki mixed with water     should be taken for 3 days(ss.u 22).

15.Leprosy

One who take powder of amalaki and nimbi in morning regularly is free from leprosy

 

 

16.Vataraktha

One should administer decoction of amalaka and haridhra sweetened with honey(c.chi 5/10)

17.Greying of hair

One should apply the paste of mandura/amalaki and japa flowers on hair before taking bath is freed from the disease (v.m57/11)

18.Prameha

  1. Amalaki and haridra are the best remedies for Prameha(AHU40/48)
  2. The patient of prameha ,after unction,emesis,purgation and non-unction enemia,should be given with haridra and honey(v.m35/16,c.chi11/8)

19.Suppression of urine

  1. One taking 160ml of amalaki juice mixed with honey one is relieved of the urinary troubles(ss.u.58/39-40)
  2. One should take the Ela with amalaki juice(ss.u58/41)

20.Eye diseases

  1. Juice coming out of the fresh amalaki fruit staying in the plant after piercing with nail alleviate  numerous diseases of eye caused by aggrevation of vata,pitta and kapha(R.m.3/10).

 

  1. As a preventive measures

Healthy persone should wash his mouth,face and eyes with decoction of amalaka(cold water inorder to prevent disorders of face,dryness of mouth&diseases caused by rakta and pitta.

 

RESEARCH STUDIES

 

  • The inhibitory activity of the Phyllanthus emblica leaf extract against human polymorpho nuclear luecocytosis(PNN) and platlets functions was studied.The result showed that leaves have inhibitory activity on PNNs and platlets which conform its anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity.
  • Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic activity:Emblica fruit powder rereduces blood sugar level in normal rabbit as well as hyperglycemic rabbit, proving the hypoglycemic activity(tripatti et al 1999)
  • Anti-peptic ulcer activity:30 cases of ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia showed equal improvement in subjective and objective parameters with conversional antacid and emblica fruit.Dried seed powder (10g in two divieded doses for 4 weeks) significantly reduced the symptoms in Amla pitta.(Sharma 1990)
  • Hypo lipidaemic and anti-atherosclerotic activity: Five groups of rabbits were studied for 16 weeks to determine the emblica fruit and  vitC  in cholesterol hyper cholestrolaemia  and atherosclerosis both reduced the serum cholesterol(takur&mandal1984).
  • Anti-microbial activity: Emblica found to have very potent anti-microbial activity(vinayakamoorthi1982).Isolation of the anti-microbial substances phyllamblin from the stem-gall callus is reported(jain et al 1984).
  • Anti-inflammatory activity:The water fraction of the methanol extract of the leaves was effective in rat paw inflammation (summanen1993)
  • Anti-emetic activity:The crude alcoholic extract of emblica fruit administered orally and was effective in controlling centrally induced emesism by apo morphine in dogs.
  • Rasayana activity:Amalaki rasayana is said to have growth promoting effect(growth and longevity) drug has no significant effect on the level of serum protein fraction,yet it raises the total protein level and increases the body weight.The studies also indicate that the increase in body weight is due to a positive nitrogen balance.(tevari et al 1968).
  • Phyllamblin antagonized the spasmogenic effect of acetylcholine,bradykinin&serotonin on the guinea pig ileum(khurana et al 1970)

 

MARTRA

 

  1. Fresh juice :        10-20
  2. Churna     :        3-6
  3. Loha    :        20gm

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