BOTANICAL NAME    : STRYCHNOS NUX- VOMICA LINN.

FAMILY : LOGANIACEAE

 

LITERARY REVIEW

 

Visamustika is mentioned by susruta is the surasadigana.

Dalhana in this context described it as Raja Nimba. Sodhala denoted it as visa tinduka while Bhava misra described it as kakatinduka or kupilu, Kaiyadeva quoted a drug visamusti which may be nux-vomica according to the author.

Rajanighantu described five kinds of visamusti viz. visamusti , kesamusti, sumusti, Anumustika and ksupadodi.[1]

 

 

DIFFERENT VARIETIES

 

In ethnomedicine other species of the same genus are in vogue in Telangana area of Andra Pradesh. The author noticed that these species are being used in the name of different kinds of ‘mushini’.

Strychnos cinnamomifolia root bark extract showed muscle relaxant activity is one of the other species in vogue.

 

SYNONYMS AND INTERPRETATION

 

  • Kupilu – The fruits are like that of Pilu.
  • Tinduka – The Fruits are like that of Tinduka.
  • Jalatha – Prefers watery place or cool place.
  • Kaka Tinduka – Grown in forests liked by birds like that of Tindu fruits.
  • Kakapiluka– It grows in forests like that of Pilu tree .
  • Kakendu– The pulp is liked by crows.
  • Visatinduka– The fruits are like Tinduka fruits which is sweet but the seeds are poisonous.
  • Neelasara / Kakaskantha– The wood is dark or black is colour.
  • Spanthana – Increase the pulse rate and blood pressure.
  • Remyaphala– The fruits are very attractive.
  • Kakakoodaka – The fruits are having poisonous seeds.
  • Thanuka – The leaves have prominent veination.
  • Karaskara– A tree having poisonous nuts.[4]

 

VERNACULAR NAMES

 

  • English – Nux vomica
  • Hindi           – Kuchala
  • Telugu                    – Mushini ginjatu
  • Bengali           – Kunchita
  • Marathi – Kajara
  • Gujarati – Jherkuchata
  • Tamil           – Yettikottai
  • Kannada           – Kanjira
  • Malayalam           – Kanniram
  • Arbic           – Habbul gurav
  • Orissa                     – Kachila [1,2,3]

 

 

 

 

PARTS USED

 

Seeds, Root bark.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DOSAGE

 

Powder: 60 – 250 mg.

 

FORMULATIONS

 

  • Agnitunti vati – angimandhya
  • Vatagajankusa rasa
  • Kriminudgara rasa – krimiroga nashanardha
  • Visatinduka taila – kushta,vatarakta
  • Visatinduka vati
  • Karaskara ghrta-sodha, daha,sandhipida,

vatarakta[1]

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

 

The seeds contain two important alkaloids namely strychnine and brucine. They also contain vamicine, colubrine, logamines glycoside and fatty substance upto 3% alkaloids. Total content of the alkaloids ranges from 2.6 % to 5.3% of which approximately half proportion is of strychnine, but bark yields only brucine.[1]

 

PROPERTIES AND DOSHAGNATHA

 

  • Rasa                     –        Tikta, Katu
  • Guna           –        Laghu, ruksa, tiksna
  • Virya                     –        Usna
  • Vipaka                    –        Katu
  • Dosakarma           –        Vatakaphasamaka[1]

 

KARMA

 

  • Kapha vatahara
  • Vishaghna
  • Grahi[1]

 

PRAYOGA

 

  • Kandu
  • Kustha
  • Vatsroga
  • Vrana
  • Arsas[1]

 

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION

 

  • Vatajanaka
  • Madakaraka
  • Grahi
  • Kaphaghna
  • Pittaghna
  • Raktavikarahara
  • Dipana
  • Pacana
  • Uttejaka
  • Balya
  • Vajikara
  • Hrdayottejaka
  • Raktabharavardhaka[12]

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

  • Visuci – Kupilu, Navasadara and Hingu are to be fried on fire individually and mixed together. The powder is made into pills with and given orally.
  • Jvara – Purified kupilu and marica powder equal quantity is made into pills by grinding with the decoction of Indrayava fruits and given orally.
  • Agnimandya – Kupilu , Navasara& Hingu are made into pills with lemon juice and taken orally.[1]

 

 

 

FOLKLORE

 

Mixtures of Nux vomica were used as gastro intestinal stimulants, increasing appetite by stimulation of pevistalsis. Strychnine also increases the flow of gastric juice.

Alternative medicine systems have suggested strychinos for a wide range of medicinal problems liver cancers, various gastrointestinal complaints, abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation intestinal irritation, heartburn, insomnia, nervous conditions menopausal problems.

Powered seed used for atonic dyspepsia.

Seeds used in rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, diabetes, piles.[12]

 

RESEARCH WORKS

 

  • Strychnine showed remarkable negative chronotropic activity on frog isolated heart and guinea pig atria
  • Strychnine increased level of acetyleboline in spinal cord and sustained convulsions in frog heart.
  • Strychnine inhibited nicotinic stimulation of catecholamine release from bovine cultured adrenal chromaffine cells in concentration dependent manner it is also inhibited nicotine induced membrane depolarization and increase intracellular 2 + Ca++ Concentration. Results suggest that strychnine interacts with against binding site of nicotinic acetyl chorine receptors in chromaffine cells, thus exerting pharmacological effect independent of glycine receptor. [1]
  • os nux-vomica

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